History of Education, Teacher Training, Teaching, Teachers

A Concise History of Education of Teachers, of Teacher Training and Teaching

Western history of teacher training, education history, teaching theories, education of teachers, modern history od education, began in early 18th century Germany: teaching seminaries educating teachers were the first formal teacher training in Western history of education and teaching.

(History of education had 2nd century-BC Greek Spartan free public education, Athenian Academy until age 18 and higher Academy and Lyceum; Roman private formal schooling in tiers; China’s 1st century-BC administrator examinations; 1st century Jewish informal Cul’ Tura general education; Islam’s 9th century universities [madrasahs]; 16th century Aztec mandatory teen education; 18th century Russian nation-wide education, Poland’s Education Ministry, Chez ‘teacher of nations’ Comenius’s ‘Didactica Magna’ on universal education [compulsory, certified teachers, tests]; leading later Western history of education –17th century Scotland’s free education, 18th’s Norway’s mandatory literacy and  New Zealand’s standard education, 21st’s Europe’s Bologna process equalising educational qualifications.)

Teacher education and training, first teacher training college in French  history of education and history of teaching, Jean Babtiste de la Salle’s 18th century Brothers of the Christian schools, had non-clerical male teachers teaching poor and middle class children. Based on Greek philosophers’ philosophy of education and teaching, re-introduced by Islam, spirituality was not its only reason, basis of education. Teacher education and training had been clerical –this was Western history of education’s first secular teacher training college.

This philosophy of education changed educational history’s attitude to education. It reformed education, educational theory, learning, enabled further education reforms and educational theories of teaching in history of education. With education reforms in education history, educational theory of teacher education required of teachers an understanding of the human mind and the theory of education, knowledge of sciences and arts, principles and educational methods of teaching. This need in educational history for a teaching method, method of education, necessitated theories of education -in Western history of education educational theories on teacher education interested educators.

These educational philosophies and theories of education on teacher education became the norm in Western history of education, teacher training establishments first Normal Schools in the history of education and training of teachers.

Teacher education progressed educational history: in history of education and history of teaching the system of education required and enabled knowledge, in-service experience, certification for teachers, continuing professional development for teachers in teaching. This non-uniform system of teacher education and training enabled teachers, while teaching, at teacher seminars to refresh and increase their knowledge of theory of education and method of teaching -exchanging ideas among teachers.

Napoleon, in history of education and teacher training,  uniformed professional teaching. Adopting Germany’s teacher seminars, in French history of education and in Western history of education and training of teachers, established the first uniform teacher education system.

Neither the USA’s educational history nor British history of education did in educational philosophies, systems of education, include formal teacher education and training, although Elizabeth-I had introduced teachers’ moral teaching fitness certification in teacher education .

In England’s history of education and teaching, in early 19th century Joseph Lancaster and Andrew Bell founded the Lancastarian teaching method of teacher training: in a monitorial system of teacher education and training senior students (‘monitors’) receiving teaching from tutors were teaching junior students, acting as teachers.

In Scotland’s history of education and teaching, 17th century free education compulsory in late 19th, Germany’s teacher education and training influenced David Stowe’s founding the Glasgow Normal Seminary for teachers.

Progress in teaching and teacher training began with Horace Mann’s Massachusetts Normal Schools in the USA’s educational history, and in Britain’s history of education by the churches’ and voluntary organisations’ teacher training colleges and teaching the colonials.

In philosophies of education arguments followed on teacher education in educational history: should persons of lower English social class attend teacher training colleges and give teaching to children of higher social class!? Might teachers’ teaching not influence young French minds with liberal ideas?!

(Japan’s educational philosophy [perhaps influencing the USA’s educational philosophy, history of education and teaching] emphasised patriotic teacher education and teaching.)

In Europe’s history of teacher education and training, Rosencrantz’s 19th century ‘Philosophy of Education’ emphasised ‘philosophical and psychological data’; this, resembling Islam’s university faculties, developed into separate teaching disciplines.

In Sweden’s history of education and teaching, Pestalozzi furthered the progress of systems of education, advocating formal teacher training colleges.

(Pestalozzi, except theologically, was self-educated, did not leave a written account of teaching and of teacher training colleges; his place in the history of education and teaching is deducible in outline from his various writings, loving sincere deeds, the example he set.)

Germany’s Froebel, and Alexander Bain’s ‘Education as a Science’, favoured education of teachers through teacher training colleges; teacher education adopted what philosophies of education in Western educational history and teaching had lacked -Herbart’s pedagogical emphasis in teaching on five formal steps: preparation, presentation, comparison, generalisation, application.

Germany’s teacher education and training became the basis of developments in the history of education and teacher training; Derwent Coleridge and James Kay Shuttleworth in Britain, Mann in the USA broadly agreed: teacher education and training should emphasise techniques of teaching -“not only the subjects of instructions, but also the method of teaching”.

Jules Ferry laws’ compulsory education established teacher education and training in late 19th century French history of education: teacher education and training, by law, should be through formal teacher training colleges.

English speaking countries’ history of education and teaching, formal teacher education and training, began with the University of Edinburgh’s creating a chair in education, with St. Andrews; in the USA’s history of education, e.g., Henry Bernard, Nicholas Murray Butler, followed.

In Western history of education, England’s progress involved pedagogy and Herbart Sepencer’s teaching techniques in teacher education and training, the USA’s e.g., Francis W. Parker’s, studying Germany’s pedagogical teacher education developments.

In the USA’s history of education and teaching the Darwinian hypothesis (as before later scientific evaluation) influenced John Dewey at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools; taking into account from other disciplines what were considered relevant in teaching to child development, the religiously affiliated Brown University founded an education department.

(The La Salle College in Philadelphia, had been teaching education.)

New York’s Teachers College, founded 1888, was incorporated into the Columbia University, 1893, establishing its teacher training college, announcing: “The purpose of the Teacher Training College is to afford opportunity, both theoretical and practical, for the training of teachers, of both sexes, for kindergartens and elementary schools and secondary schools, of principals, supervisors, and superintendents of schools, and of specialists in various branches of school work, involving normal schools and colleges” -it became the basis, in Western history of education and teaching, of teacher education and training and Teacher Colleges.

(The USA’s educational history experts’ versions vary on it history of education.) 

In most of British Commonwealth’s history of education and system of teacher training, entry into teacher training came to require senior secondary education at High School level or British Grammar School education with national Matriculation or Ordinary and Advanced General Certificate of Education (GCE) examinations –or equivalent.

In Europe’s history of education and teacher training, education with similar Gymnasium(/Abitur)  or General Lycè e Diploma, or equivalent education, became professional teacher education and training entry qualification.

(In British history of education, until early 20th century, holders of those qualifications, by selection examination, could become temporary teachers. Oxbridge graduates could register ‘master’ and be syndicated teachers. Other universities’ graduates, to become teachers, attended teacher training colleges [if Bachelor of Education, second year teacher training of a teacher training college].)

In British Commonwealth’s history of education greater importance was attached to professionalism in teacher education and training: academic qualifications did not suffice for teaching; teacher examinations required specific periods of specifically professional study in teaching. Professional teaching involved two years’ professional study in teaching and additional in-house teacher training before professional teacher status. Professional teachers could, with another educational year at the teacher training college, specialise in a subject, e.g., geography or history (in farming colonies, e.g., Cyprus where Agriculture became a secondary school examination subject,  with one or two more educational years’ through the Teacher Training College’s Rural Agricultural School). Science graduates without professional teaching training and education qualified for permanent teaching after a year’s classroom teaching experience approved by professionally qualified headmasters, as teachers of their subjects. Teachers were expected to attend teachers’ seminars as continuing professional development.

While professional qualifications are regarded for professional reasons equivalent to doctorates in their counterparts and what qualify for teaching, teacher education and training (school age becoming lower and years less, to enable maturer teachers and teaching), for professional teaching knowledge and skills acquired at teacher training colleges, favoured bachelor degrees with teaching content emphasising skills over theory and, e.g., the USA’s academic ‘first professional degree’ –more for research than professional practice.

(British history of education desired teaching with Post-graduate Certificate in Education [PGCE] -for English state school teaching Qualified Teacher Status [QTS] skills test, and [also if Bachelor of Education] successfully completing an induction year [in Scotland two] in school teaching as Newly Qualified Teacher [NQT], with continuing professional development; alternatively a specific teaching degree or on-the-job teacher training. Teachers trained at Teacher Training Colleges in [former] colonies –and similarly trained teachers with GCSE [grade C] or equivalent in English and Mathematics [for primary school teaching, also Physics] enjoy Qualified Teacher Status.)

(Canada’s provinces or schools certify teachers; Australia requires none for federally funded private schools; France’s is college/bachelor and Teacher Institute [master’s -2010].)

{In the USA’s history of education, until 1960s, one year’s teacher training college education was required for teacher certification. In 1984 an alternate teaching route was introduced: bachelor’s with teaching preparation and within a specified number of years completing a teaching or content based master’s. (Some universities award [with summer study] bachelor degrees in two years, some two bachelor degrees simultaneously [e.g., with two arts and two science majors both BA Philosophy and BS ChE Chemical Engineering]; the  doctoral JD is pre-requisite to master’s LL.M which not all tenured professors need posses.) The ‘Master of Professional Studies’ (MPS) First Professional Degree is academic, not professional. Many states require of teachers, for permanent teaching, examinations in pedagogy and a content area or general knowledge accredited by many private associations’ varying standards; in early 21st century Marlboro-Carolina 20% of teachers had no certification.}

In educational history post general education having been academic for career advancement and scholarly activity or research, or professional for actual practice in the filed, the professional qualification is normally the terminating qualification; in professional teaching, advanced professional degrees enabling specialised teaching, e.g., at universities, are not regarded as part of professional teacher education and training for general education teaching; the USA’s main master’s area is for Ed.D or Ph.D. –research.)

In European history of education, teaching related educational leadership gained importance at the end of 20th century. Desiring the benefits of learnable leadership skills and inherent personal leadership qualities, teachers’ educational leadership skills in teaching leadership are remunerated according to national teacher pay scales.

The USA’s educational leadership teachers’ pay is non-uniform; educational leadership skills standards vary. Graduate educational leadership programs are in, e.g., community issues and educational law. Private Teacher Advancement Programmes (TAP) subscribed by some schools encourage teachers in administrative or teaching development: a teacher prepares an individual growth plan (IGP) with an educational goal or teaching activity, or a cluster group of teachers identify a student learning need, becoming ‘mentor’ or ‘master teacher’/‘teacher of teachers’.

As others’, USA’s teacher training colleges’ comparable teaching qualifications enjoy international regard.

In their history of education, having less aspired to ‘practical’ general education as in the USA and 21st century Britain, most British Commonwealth and European teaching institutions almost uniformly value widely academic general education as culture not acquirable in post general education (e.g., an opposition leader to a Prime Minister [both lawyers] “I as a Grammar School boy” [would not take ‘that’ from him who was not]) and Britain’s suggestion to equate practical skills certificates with general academic qualifications was criticised.

(Early 21st century British educational history saw [university or equivalent  mandatory student grants becoming loans, unemployment necessitating longer and more courses, foreigners scoring higher in English] no increase since late 20th in literacy.)

(In the USA’s history of education, with 20% adult functional illiteracy, as the educationists’ concerns grew, the educationalists considered Europe’s baccalaureate system of education; with growing public interest in education, at the end of 20th century a state appointed three generals to improve the standards of teaching and education and at the beginning of 21st century a general was appointed to federally improve teaching and educational standards.)

In educational history interest in the teaching profession has been based on the status of teachers. Regard for teachers in late 20th century was highest in Russia where teachers enjoyed better employment terms than elsewhere.

(In Britain’s history of education, 1980s’ miss-projection of numbers of teachers needed necessitated engaging science graduates without teaching qualifications as teachers; but a status was enjoyed by teachers of regard as in Europe, and, about the end of 20th century, knighthood for long serving teachers was suggested –due to controversy over peerages it did not materialise. At the beginning of 21st century reducing undergraduate degrees to two years with vocational content was considered, with master’s for teachers -also non-major professional qualifications being above undergraduate degrees in National Vocational Qualifications; but Teachers’ status was regarded to have been equated for economical reasons to classroom assistants’ socially criticised for taking classes without professional teacher education and training.])

In the USA’s history of education, teaching has hailed a form of essentialism in education, with a culture of practicality and model citizenry, emphasising respect for authority (advocated also for 21st century British education); with no general minimum standard in teacher training and education, some states not recognising the teaching qualifications of some others, teachers and teaching appear officially to enjoy no higher regard then Bernard Shaw’s remark (about writers) “Those who can, do; those who can not, teach”.

(In the USA, e.g., some teachers paid only term time having to seek vacation work, teaching and teachers generally are regarded to have enjoyed less good terms and conditions than elsewhere in proportion to social regard and public resources.)

The growth of interest in culture and education in Western history of teaching has been seen in the European Union, e.g., in Cyprus with the popularisation of education in mid. 20th century -reportedly with highest percentage of university graduates by 21st.

In Western educational reforms spiritual values in education are protected by teaching religious studies in schools in American secularism (protection of religion from political influence) and by the religious affiliations of many universities; in European secularism (protecting against one’s formal dominance of the other), often with a state religion enshrined in the constitution, this is ensured by, e.g., Britain’s Education Acts’ requirement in compulsory education of religious worship by pupils at least once a month and, while British universities are not formally religiously affiliated, the availability of  chapels and chaplains to students at universities.

While preferences in education (e.g., the pedagogy based Steiner-Waldorf education for creating free moral and integrated individuals -its teachers’ and schools’ say on defining the curricula by some disagreed with, or Montessori’s pre-school and elementary school child’s self directed activities with auto-didactic equipment -regarded by some as risking raising obedient automatons), and  emphasis (be it practical skills or Emerson’s ‘thinking man’), have all had praise and criticism in the history of education and teaching and arguments continue on pragmatism and creation -v- evolution, generally Socrates’s argument that the rightly trained mind turns toward virtue carries weight in most educational systems. Basically, in every history of education, an important aim of education and the societies’ all time expectations have been on the lines of these verses (by the Cypriot teacher, the late Orhan Seyfi Ari):

” ‘I was an ape’ you say -or amphibian?
And now?! Are you not now.. ‘man’!? ”

The cultural values balance have been more reflected in the education and training of teachers in Western history of education and teaching and the status of teachers in Europe mostly in Spain, Italy and France where, without much disregard to spiritual values, school teachers’ political and ideological affiliations have been the norm in professional teaching.

The web site may interest on teacher the late Orhan Seyfi Ari at orhanseyfiari.com

Easy Tips To Help You With Homeschooling

Our life is a process of learning new things all the time. Schools are designed to teach us most of what we need to know, but sadly they do not always live up to our expectations. Homeschooling can be hard, but this advice can help you through it a positive way.
Know what your state requires of homeschooling programs. Minimum number of homeschooling days, for example, can vary from state to state. A lot of states have curriculums, but you might have to put something together yourself. It’s best to use the local curriculum if possible.
Homeschooling can pose some issues if your other son or daughter is young. You must set aside different times of the day for each of your children. Find activities which are age-appropriate for both children. Any activity that doesn’t interfere with development is a great idea.
Work art projects into topics besides art itself. Have your kids do an art project about each thing you learn about. They can sculpt, act, sing – the limits are only your imagination! The more active your children are while they are learning, the more that total immersion will help the lesson to stick in their minds.
Make sure you do some research before jumping into homeschooling. The Internet is a vast source of unique and interesting insights and resources and offers ideas for practically every aspect of the homeschooling experience. Regardless of how much this idea appeals to you, you have to make sure that you have the energy, time, and money to provide your children with the best education.

Get in touch with the state Homeschool Association to discover laws and guidelines you have to follow. There are some states that allow you to be a ‘private school’ and there are other places that want to test your children through the state. You should be in touch with the local school district about your homeschooling plans, also.
Make a list of the positives and negatives of public school and then do the same for homeschooling. This list can guide you as you develop your lessons so that you can make sure that your children are learning everything that that was missing at public school. It will start to become a list of various things you need to avoid so you’re able to stay focused on their learning. Make sure that you store this list and look back at it when necessary.
When homeschooling, it is just as important for the parent to learn as it is for the child. Reading this article and others like it will ensure that you are the best teacher possible for your children. You will be sure that you will be giving your kids a great homeschooling experience.

At Grammartalk we cover a variety of fields in the world, of education. Check out http://grammartalk.tumblr.com/ to get educated

Still Don’t Know What a Charter School Is?

For over 22 years charter schools have existed in this country yet I am still asked the question: “Just what is a charter school?” Or worse, someone thinks they know what it is and their thoughts are far off base.  Not knowing and misinformation about charter schools is a common experience for many.  For those that do know, many in that group are divided about the values or dangers of the role charter schools play in education.

A charter school is a form of public education.  Each state legislates how the school is granted a charter to begin receiving public funds and how the school is held accountable.  Students enrolled in a charter school are the same as if they were enrolled in that state’s traditional public school.  Academic requirements, graduation requirements and all federal laws for public education are basically the same for a charter school student.  So, why bother? Why have two separate education systems?

Well, initially the thought was that by creating competition in the public school marketplace, parents were given a choice.  No longer was expensive private school tuition or homeschooling the only option a family had.  Charter schools were set loose to become innovative.  Many were created with the mission to replicate a better version of traditional schools.  Others were created with a specific mission of reaching a targeted group of students whose needs might not be met in a larger system.  For instance, one school in Texas was initially created to provide public school for a travelling group of student performers.  That school has since evolved to include any student performer.  Currently the trend seems to be aimed at reaching at-risk students that are not successful in traditional environments.

This education experiment has unleashed a plethora of problems.  Local authorities charged with overseeing charters weren’t clear what the rules would be and they issued charters to well-meaning educators that most often were not even told what those rules were either.  Everyone charged out of the gate with best intentions.  Rules changed, communication was weak or non-existing, training was poor and these infants in public education were left to run before they could walk and compete with public schools that in many case were in existence for over 100 years.

Charter holders recall events when their schools were sent state agency auditors to examine the school when the auditors themselves did not know what a charter school was.  Yet their reports would stand as the definitive evaluation of whether or not the school was performing to the standards that were required, standards that were not even applicable to the school in question.

In spite of all the growing pains, successful stories have sprung from many of the nations’ charter school students and their families.  Families without hope found success in the local community charter school specialized to meet their needs.  Charters are after all a school of choice, so many would ask why they are not left to free enterprise and rather than be held to the same standards as a traditional school, why not just let the free market determine their sustainability?  Why drain precious resources evaluating a school when the parents and students are fully capable of deciding?

Then there is the much more controversial question.  Are charter schools a danger to public education, as we know it?  Quite possibly. Competition and choice do bring change.  In this instance, the controversy lies in whether or not such change will benefit our futures.  While small community schools were the first wave of charter education, large corporate management companies have begun to see the financial benefit of owning and operating  “chain” schools across the country.  A small hand full of large investor/philanthropists such as the Walton’s (WalMart), the Dell foundation, the Gates Foundation and Michael Milken (formerly known as the junk bond king) are all heavily vested in the charter school industry.

With so much controversy, so much positive and negative publicity, it is a challenge for the small school model that was initially thought of as incubators of innovation in public education.  Today’s parent has access to so much information to make informed decisions about their child’s school.  Unfortunately, they may be reading more misinformation than they realize.

Developing A Homeschooling Curriculum

If you’ve got simply created the choice to home school your kid then your next important step should be to find and develop your homeschooling course of study. There are variety totally different of various} homeschooling curriculums on the market every with different designs. Several oldsters evaluate over one course of study and combine them to develop a course of study they feel is well matched for his or her child’s learning style. It should take it slow to switch a certain homeschooling course of study, however this is often fine as a result of if you’re getting to home school for the future than having a well suited curriculum is incredibly important. Conjointly because the parents become responded to the modification of the homeschooling course of study becomes easier.

The different types of curriculum sometimes are available in one in every of two varieties, full packages or partial packages. For parents who feel there kid desires strict structure to find out than they might purchase an entire package. The plain advantage to those packages is it’ll define each program, as well as faith, and reporting procedure that the parent is legally responsible for. The foremost disadvantage would be that the value is incredibly high and there’s no guarantee that the program is well matched for the kid. Parents that have homeschooled for a short time, sometimes try and mix some partial packages into an entire package over time. This permits them time to determine their child’s learning vogue, further as their own teaching vogue, whereas they need the flexibleness to combine and match programs from totally different homeschooling curriculums into one they’re comfortable using.

Great thanks to begin to develop a course of study for your kid are to get course of study guides. There are several terribly careful outlines of virtually each program obtainable. These guides define every program with potential upsides and disadvantages for everyone. It’s the parent’s responsibility to make your mind up that program from that course of study can work best for his or her kid. The advantage of developing a course of study this way is that the price savings additionally as having input on the design within which your kid can learn. The disadvantage is that the parent should remember of necessities the wants the necessities their jurisdiction puts on homeschooling and it’s their responsibility these requirements are met. Additionally in following this combine and match system the parents are also responsible for decisive the reportage procedure which could not forever be as clear once programs are fused along from multiple homeschooling curriculums.

So once parents have decided to home school their kid, they need an awfully necessary call to make. Developing a homeschooling curriculum that may keep their child’s attention and stimulate learning is imperative if parents expect to be successful

Teaching Practice: Concept, Stages, Objectives & Suggestions

Introduction

Practice teaching occupies a key position in the programme of teacher education. It is a culminating experience in teacher preparation. It provides opportunity to beginning teachers to become socialized into the profession (Furlong et.al, 1988). Performance during practice teaching provides some basis for predicting the future success of the teacher. Outgoing popularity and centrality of practice teaching is an important contributing factor towards the quality of teacher education programme. During practice teaching working with students in schools provides a high degree of emotional involvement of a mostly positive nature. Student teachers feel themselves grow through experience and they begin to link to a culture of teaching. During practice teaching, they feel engaged, challenged and even empowered (Trowbridge and Bybee, 1994; sharafuddin, and Allison, 1969).

Definitions of Practice Teaching

A number of terms such as the practice teaching, student teaching, teaching practice, field studies, infield experience, school based experience or internship are used to refer to this activity (Taneja, 2000). The term practice teaching embraces all the learning experiences of student teachers in schools (Ashraf, 1999). The term practice teaching has three major connotations: the practicing of teaching skills and acquisition of the role of a teacher; the whole range of experiences that students go through in schools; and the practical aspects of the course as distinct from theoretical studies (Stones and morris, 1977).

 

Practice teaching is the name of the preparation of student teachers for teaching by practical training. It is the practical use of teaching methods, teaching strategies, teaching principles, teaching techniques and practical training and practice / exercise of different activities of daily school life.

 

Objectives of Practice Teaching

 

According to Akbar (2002) Following are the objectives of practice teaching:

    1. To provide the prospective teachers with an opportunity of establishing an appropriate teacher pupil relationship.

 

    1. To provide an opportunity for evaluating the student potential as a teacher and suitability for the teaching profession.

 

    1. To develop personal relationship with others: administrators, teachers, parents and students.

 

    1. To provide the future teacher with practical experience in school to overcome the problems of discipline and enable him / her to develop method of control.
    1. To provide with an opportunity to put theories into practice and to develop a deeper understanding of educational principles and their implication for learning.
    1. To enable the student teachers effectively to plan and prepare lessons.
    1. To develop skill in the use of fundamental procedures, techniques and methods of teaching.

To develop desirable professional interests, attitudes and ideas relative to teaching profession.

    1. To enable student teachers to acquire desirable characteristics / traits of a teacher and to display appropriate behaviour.
    1. To provide student teachers with an opportunity to have teaching evaluated and to gain from the benefits of constructive criticism.
    1. To provide an opportunity for self evaluation and to discover own strengths and weaknesses.
    1. To develop skills in future teachers related to teaching like fluent speaking, meaningful reading, using blackboard and other teaching material.
    1. To provide an opportunity to liaise with school environment, its functioning and with community and its resources.
    1. To provide for the exchange of ideas and methods between practicing school and teacher training institution, by teacher training institutions’ staff and students, perceiving new ideas material and equipment in use in practicing schools and introducing new ideas, material and equipments into the school.

Stages in Practice teaching

Following are the stages in practice teaching

Primary Stage

It is necessary to make a trip of student teachers to that particular school, where they are going for practice teaching. The main aim of this tour is to see the concerned head teacher, class teachers and school staff in order to acquire information about school and its environment. Student teachers must observe the teaching methods of school, methods of concerned class teacher, copies or notebooks of the students and their usual routine. On return from the tour student teachers must have the details about scheme of studies, age of the students, strength of the class, abilities and specific problems of the students, timing of the school, textbooks and teaching aids.

Preparation of Lesson

For the preparation of lesson student teachers must know the subject, the relevant books and audio visual aids. Which he / she is going to teach. Because already prepared lessons give confidence to the teacher. Student teachers and supervisor can reform the teaching learning process after its evaluation.

Qualities of a Good Lesson

A good lesson has the following qualities:

i)                    Lesson planning should be in complete detail.

ii)                   Lesson should be interesting.

iii)                 Effective and timely use of teaching methods and teaching aids.

iv)                 Student should be ready for learning.

v)                  Students should be involved practically in teaching learning process.

vi)                 Lesson should be taught in professional and friendly environment.

vii)               All students should be given same attention by keeping in view their individual differences.

Teaching in Classroom

The stage of teaching in the classroom is known as  practice teaching. Student teachers while teaching   in the classroom passes through different steps of his / her teaching (Introduction, presentation, recapitulation) and concerned teacher  / supervisor assesses / observes his / her lesson.

Evaluation of Teaching Practice

In order to evaluate the teaching practice supervisor observe the student teacher while teaching in the classroom. Supervisor evaluates / observes the punctuality, lesson planning, teaching methods, use of audio visual aids, adequacy of audio visual aids, pitch of voice, dress, start and end of lesson, interest of the students, discipline of class, use of black / white board, students’ notebooks and objectives of the lesson.

Participation in Other routine Works of School

Teaching in the classroom is not only the objective of teaching practice, but also to provide training in all activities / work which student teachers are going to perform in future during their job. For this purpose they have to spend whole day in school as teacher. They have to participate in all the activities of school e.g preparation of timetable, preparation and maintenance of different registers, evaluation of class work and home work, arrangement of tutorial groups, sports / games, morning assembly, co-curricular activities, duty during recess, duty as day master, duty before and after school timing, decoration of classroom, preparation and maintenance of attendance board, news board, information board, look after and arrangements of A V aids room, home economics room, science laboratories and library.

How to deal with students’ parents, officers of the school, school employees and guests are also the part of teaching practice. Duties as invigilators, preparation of question papers for examinations, evaluation of answer scripts and compilation of results is also part of teaching practice.

Role of Supervisor in Teaching Practice

Supervisor has an important role in practice teaching as:

i)                    A resource person

ii)                   An adviser

iii)                 A general moral booster

iv)                 An interpreter of feedback

v)                  An assessor

Supervisor’s duty is not only to evaluate the lessons of teaching practice, but by using his / her all the abilities to make this experience (All the stages of teaching practice) result oriented. He / she should has all the planning before hand. He / she should have meeting and conversion with teacher educators, experienced teachers of the institution, educationists, concerned school head teachers and other teachers.

Introductory lectures should be arranged before the departure of student teachers to the practicing schools in order to aware the student teachers about the preparation of lesson plans and other assigned activities. During teaching practice it is the duty of supervisors to supervise their lessons, other assigned activities, guidance and counseling as well as provide the student teachers with feed back and to enable them so that they can criticize and reform themselves. During the teaching practice student teachers should not be criticized in front of the practicing school staff and students. If there is a need then all the student teachers should be gathered and should be scolded and warned without nominating and asking the name. Supervisors’ role is to prepare teachers for future, therefore he / she should act as a facilitator.

Teaching Practice in Pakistan

Different teacher training programmes are being offered in Pakistan. In all the programmes teaching practice is compulsory component except M.Ed (Master of Education). In true spirit we can produce good teachers through this activity, but the procedure adopted in Pakistan is just to pass / kill the time. Teaching practice duration is very short, it is about 4 to 8 weeks or teaching of 60 to 75 lessons. During teaching practice student teachers are bound to the classrooms for teaching. They are not trained for the other activities performed in schools. Therefore, effective learning could not take place. Student teachers are bound to use easy principles and methods of teaching. They are just being taught how to start the lesson, how to control the class, how to keep an eye over the students while writing on the black / white board.

Teaching practice is doing nothing to teaching other than adhoc basis. The schools where teaching practice is conducted are doing nothing but only bearing it and not taking active part in the preparation of teachers of future. The administration and teachers of practicing schools are not aware with the information and evaluation techniques, which are used during teaching practice. They are not fully aware about the importance of teaching practice for student teachers and future generations.

It is a fact that student teachers are not perfect teachers, practicing schoolteachers can’t give them full authorities but they can trust on them. Practically two ways are being seen here in Pakistan. Firstly these uninvited guests are consider inferiors teachers and criticized without any justification. Secondly some teachers transfer their all burden to them.

In some teacher training institutions selection of lessons is kept up to the choice of student teachers and they select such lessons which are very easy and in which minimum audio visual aids are used.

Suggestions to Improve Teaching Practice in Pakistan

Here are some suggestions to improve the teaching practice in Pakistan.

a)      In teacher training institutions teaching methods were not only teach but also practically demonstrated by the teacher educators.

b)      The duration of teaching practice should be increased up to 12 weeks at least, so that practical training should be given for a quarter of the year.

c)      Teaching practice should not be consisted of classroom teaching only. Other aspects like attendance of students, collection of fee, calculation of fee, preparation of registers, conduct of morning assembly, conduct of co-curricular activities, preparation of question papers, marking of answer scripts, compilation of results, solution of students’ problems and meetings with students’ parents should be included.

d)      Microteaching should be adopted in teacher training institutions and model lessons should be given before student teachers by experts as well as by video films.

e)      Student teachers are not given marks only for model lessons and all the aspects of teaching practice should be included in evaluation.

f)        In order to make the evaluation of teaching practice more effective, appropriateness of lesson, teaching methods, teaching aids, practical organization of lesson, interest of students and teachers and students’ answers should be included in evaluation.

g)      It should be encouraged that student teachers make audio visual aids by them selves and student teachers should be given  / provided guidance after every lesson.

h)      In order to make teaching practice more effective, it is also proposed that student teachers should watch the lessons of experienced teachers for one week and write evaluation report about them and supervisors should provide guidelines to student teachers in the light of this evaluation report.

i)        It should be ensured that student teachers keep the sequence of lessons in such a way, so that they can teach all types of lessons and use different teaching methods.

j)        Prior to teaching practice student teachers should practice in their fellows in order to build more confidence in them.

k)      During teaching practice student teachers should be given projects, which cover all the aspects of teaching practice i.e. (preparation of teaching kit, planning for decoration of classrooms, betterment of environment and provision of facilities).

l)        During practice teaching prospective teachers should be made habitual of preparing daily lesson plan.

m)    Practice teaching should be more realistic and suited to the actual class room situations.

Conclusion

Teaching practice is an activity, which can play an important role in the preparation of teachers. Its effectiveness is necessary for the nation. It is a milestone for professional adolescence.  It is a combination of personality, professional skills, knowledge and training, which is fuel for an endless journey. Now it is the duty / responsibility of teacher educators and teachers of practicing schools to make this fuel / expenditure endless.

Bibliography

Akbar, R.A. (2002).A study of Practice Teaching of Prospective Secondary School

Teachers and Development of a Practice Teaching Model, Arid Agricultural

University, Rawalpindi (Unpublished PhD Thesis).

Ali Murtaza,(2005). Comparative Study of Practice Teaching in Formal and Non formal

Systems and Development of a Model, Arid Agricultural  University, Rawalpindi

(Unpublished PhD Thesis).

Brown, P.D. & Brown N.R.(1990). Effective Teaching Practice. Stanley Thornes,

England.

Cohen, a. & Carver, N. (1970). A Students’ guide to Teaching Practice. University of

London Press, London.

Cohen, L.& Manion, L.(1983). A Guide to teaching Practice. Methuen, London.

Furlong, V.J.;P.U. Hirst and K. Pocklington.(1988). Initial Teacher Training and The

Role of the chool. Open University Press, Philadelphia.

Govt. of Pakistan. (1997). Pakistan Vision 2010. report; seminar on education. Planning

and Development Division, Islamabad.

Malik, S.R.(1992). The System of education in Pakistan. National Book Foundation,

Lahore.

Muhammad Ashraf (1990). Dictionary of Primary Education. A.P.H. Publishing

Corporation, New Delhi.

Shah, R.A.(1995). Education and Teacher education in Pakistan. Pakistan study Centre,

University of Sindh, Jamshoro.

Taneja, R.P.(2000). Encyclopedia of Comparative Education, Vol.4. Anmol Publications

Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

Walkin, L.C.(    ). Instructional Techniques Practice. Stanley Thornes, Bargenham.

Quality Public Education

In 2004 Forbes magazine ranked Raleigh, North Carolina’s Wake County Public School System ( WCPSS ), third in the nation for “Best Education in the Biggest Cities“. It’s no wonder, as Greater Raleigh is able to provide superior education opportunities in both public and private settings. WCPSS is a national leader on the education front. The school system boasts a solid high school graduation rate, great access to educational resources, and affordability in housing. All these factors, combined with it’s amazing programming make for an undeniably strong school system.
If you are moving to the Greater Raleigh area and want to know about specific WCPSS programming, read on:
K-12: The Formative Years
Committed to excellence, The Board of Education has adopted an ambitious goal. They aim to have 95 percent of WCPSS students in grades three through 12, at or above grade level by the end of this year! Such ambitious goals are indicative of a forward thinking and committed board, who are dedicated to providing the best education and ensuring that positive growth continues.
Parents in this area have a wide variety of educational options. There are many traditional public schools and also numerous private and special-needs schools. WCPSS offers over 20 programs in the district with 51 magnet schools. The award winning magnet school program provides creative approaches for teachers to reach students and to meet different student’s individual learning styles and needs. Magnet schools in the area, have been especially recognized with awards such as the United States Magnet School of Excellence of award and the Magnet School of Distinction award.
Recently the district received a portion of a 2.3 million dollar grant to open a health and life science themed high school aimed at developing students for both higher education and jobs in biotechnology and health care. Students at these schools will have the opportunity to participate in internship programs and will have access to community college and university level courses. There’s other grant funding in place which comes from the New Schools Project, an 11 million dollar grant that will create more than 100 new and redesigned high schools across the state.
Post- Secondary: Superior Education at Your Doorstep!

North Carolina State University, as one of the nation’s top research universities, is a great example of one the best post secondary options in Raleigh. Home to BTEC, The Golden LEAF Biomanfacturing Training and Education Center, this University is committed to providing a highly trained, industry-focused workforce. Dedicated to pursue “innovation in action”, NCSU partner’s with business’s, industry and government with a focus to collectively create innovative products and research.
The region’s community colleges also offer solid programs for those wishing to pursue technical, or specialized training in particular sectors of the workforce.
ommunity college is focused on biotechnology training to provide a highly trained workforce for the estimated 125,000 residents of NC who will be employed in this sector by 2025.
Wake Technical Community College is a leader in biological and chemical technology programs. They also offer North Carolina’s only community college lab facility for industrial pharmaceutical technology. As a state leader providing over 20% of all industry training offered by community colleges in the state, Wake Tech serves as a catalyst for economic growth and development. This exceptional community college assists thousands of businesses with its superior Small Business Center and New and Expanding Industry Program.
It is easy to see why Raleigh, North Carolina boasts one of America’s most educated workforces. If education is important to you and your family, consider Raleigh, North Carolina as a smart option for a solid future.

Locate the best MBA Courses at Top Business Schools easily

If we have a detailed look onto various course, MBA is has turn out to be a quick developing as many of the students and even their parents look for such advanced education elective all over the globe. The possibilities of being utilized by the world pioneers in business field are powering the interest. Hence, more MBA foundations is observing a plentiful application from everywhere throughout the nation. In such a diversified nation as India, top MBA College in Delhi NCR and various other MBA colleges in Greater Noida are in the most demand among all.

The increased number of seats in B-schools of Greater Noida obviously indicates that how much they are growing in favoritism among all. But at the same time, one should also keep in mind that these increased numbers does not ensure a candidate his/her admission in that B school or MBA College in greater Noida. This is due to that fact that the quantity of candidates is a prime element of top MBA colleges in Delhi NCR. In any case, such increased number of seats definitely gives some included level of positivity, certainty and confidence among growing students.

In such environment, when many of you wish to surf about best and Top MBA colleges in Delhi NCR, one way that emerges among everything else to get proffering, exact & every possible related data about distinctive MBA college in greater Noida and in entire NCR region, is the World Wide Web. This has been worldwide observed that it is the treasure of huge data of trainings and entrances. You will exclusively find huge information which concentrates on all surfaces relating to MBA; various academic aside from posting the top MBA universities and colleges in NCR. On internet one will come across applicable MBA courses, different specializations available, and MBA training centers. Not only is this one able to grab information about abroad MBA studies & other relevant assets.

Earlier there had been shortage of business administration institutes in Delhi, but scenario is not the same these days. Various NCR regions especially Greater Noida is now crowded with numerous MBA colleges, now it should be the intelligence of a person to find and choose the best among all, meeting all the requirement, budgets and off-course providing best faculty and academics. Top MBA colleges in Delhi NCR give extraordinary instruction and guidance to their students, carving them into the successful business professional as they expect. What else a student expect from his/her academics and career. Surf the internet and get admitted in the best MBA College.

Advancing Your Skills: Online Teacher Education Courses

If you are looking to enhance your teaching and advance your career, it may be a great choice for you to earn graduate credit for teachers. High quality, graduate-level online teacher education courses are a great alternative to the traditional classroom atmosphere. We all know that teachers are busier than ever, but with online classes, it is easy for teachers to fit time in their schedules. Online courses are easily accessible and will make your time learning fly by! The benefits are also incredible: enjoy fun and flexible learning while earning graduate credit that will allow you to move farther in your career. The online teacher education courses will inform you on different strategies and resources to utilize directly into your own classroom. You will not be the only one to benefit from this opportunity. Your students will learn better, your school will gain reputation and your school district will be recognized for improved instruction and student outcomes. All of these results will help increase your chance of a higher salary and a more rewarding career experience.

There is sometimes a misunderstanding that online classes are not interactive since you are not face to face with other people. However, that is not the case at all. Most, if not all, online courses offer the option of online discussion boards so that you can be in constant contact with other colleagues to discuss ideas, problems, and questions regarding your programs of study. Additionally, you receive one on one recommendations and criticism from your professor. When choosing this program, you really are getting the best of both worlds since you can be at home in a relaxed and comfortable atmosphere while at the same time learning material that will prove beneficial in leading to greater opportunities for your future career.

Online teacher certification courses are also developed and taught by highly qualified professors. You will definitely not be caught up in a scam when you choose to enroll. Most universities are now offering online programs because of their convenience, practicality and interactivity. Graduate credit for teachers can be achieved during your own time, with even the degree programs being flexible. In fact, the only face-to-face requirements are the field experiences in your subject and/or grade specialization. To make things even easier, this can be conveniently arranged and completed in a school near you, so that travel time is minimal. The programs are also very practical because you are provided with the tools to lead curricular advancements and instructional improvements, in any subject area of your choice.

During these tough economic times, alternative options to traditional graduate programs must be considered. The advantages of online teacher education courses are evident. They provide a quality education while minimizing costs and travel. Additionally, taking these courses will provide the foundation for a strong teaching background and provide a unique perspective on teaching. Teaching certifications and graduate credit provided by these programs make them a viable option. If you are looking to advance your teaching career today, consider the endless opportunities that these online programs will provide.

Using The Concept Of “machine” To Teach Algebraic Concepts To Elementary School Students

The ideas presented in this article came about as a response to a perfectly awful third grade text book lesson which my wife was forced to present when she was student teaching. The lesson was intended (I suppose) as an introduction to algebraic concepts.

Without any motivation or other rationale, the text introduced a problem:

If 3 × X = 12 what is X?

This was followed by a description of the standard algebraic procedure for solving the problem:

  • Divide both sides of the equation by three;
  • “Cancel” the “3”s on the left hand side;
  • Divide 12 by 3;
  • Conclude that X = 4.

This procedure was described by a sequence of diagrams, each showing the next step in the transformation. The authors of the text were clearly under no illusion that a typical or even advanced third grader would understand the meaning and justification behind an algebraic derivation. The level of abstraction required to understand the concept of variable, the meaning of an equation, the idea that equations are assertions which can be transformed to logically equivalent assertions and the strategy for deriving a solution is light years beyond anything a normal third grade student has encountered or could possibly understand. The goal was simply to teach the students a mechanical procedure in the way one might program a computer.

In attempting to recast this lesson in a form that might be meaningful and even valuable to third grade students the challenge is how to make the concepts involved concrete. When a child thinks of a (whole) number she can imagine a basket of apples or a stack of pennies. When a child thinks of addition the child can think combining baskets of apples or stacks of pennies. But what interpretation can a young child give to an equation or a variable?

We start by considering how we might visualize a variable and an equation involving a variable in terms of some kind of more or less concrete object that would make sense to an eight year old. A variable is a kind of object, which can be assigned different values. An equation involving a variable is a statement which depending on the value we assign to the variable may be either true or false. We may thus think of an equation as a kind of question answering machine. This machine accepts a number, which is to be assigned as the “value” of the variable, and the machine answers the question: “Is the equation true when this value is assigned to the variable?” We can picture such a machine operating as in the following diagrams.

The machine has a part we have labeled the input where values are placed and a part called the output where answers are produced. We will call machines that produce an output when presented with an input, Input/Output Machines. When presented with an input value, the machine illustrated above, which we have labeled “3 × X = 12?” substitutes that value for the variable X in the equation 3 × X = 12, evaluates whether the resulting equation is true or false, and outputs the result. Thus when we enter the input “3,” the machine substitutes “3” for “X” in the equation “3 × X = 12,” resulting in the equation “3 × 3 = 12” which, when we substitute the value of 3 × 3 for “3 × 3,” gives the equation “9 = 12” which evaluates to “False” which is then output. Using this machine, we can restate the original problem as: “Find an input for the “3 × X = 12?” machine which causes this machine to output True.

While this machine may help students to visualize the meaning of an equation as a machine that outputs True or False, it seems questionable whether young students would understand the manipulations involved in substituting a value for a variable or substituting values for expressions as when we substitute “9” for “3 × 3.” Further it seems likely that the interpretation of an equation not as an assertion but as a predicate, i.e. an expression that may be “true” or “false” would be confusing to students. We can simplify the problem in two ways. First we can get rid of the equation by considering the following Input/Output machine.

Here we’ve replaced the equation, “3 × X = 12?,” by the expression “3 × X”. Like the equation machine, when presented with a value as input, this machine substitutes the value for the variable and evaluates the expression and outputs the value. The difference is that in this case the value of the expression is a number rather than “true” or “false.” For example, when presented with input “3”, this machine produces the value “9”. In terms of this machine we can restate our problem as “Find an input value which causes the ‘3 × X’ machine to output 12.”

While we have eliminated the need to interpret an equation as a predicate, it still requires the student to make sense out of the concept of a variable and the process of substituting into a symbolic expression and simplifying. So our final step in the reduction of the problem is to eliminate the use of the variable. After all, what does the “3 × X” machine do? It takes whatever input you present to it and multiplies by 3. We can describe this without using a variable. We simply call this the “Times 3” machine (or if you prefer the “Times by 3” or perhaps the “tripling” machine.)


Now our problem can be stated entirely in terms of the Times 3 machine: find a number which when input to the Times 3 machine produces output 12.

No doubt some would argue that in this formulation we have “watered down” the lesson precisely in that we have eliminated the use of a variable, the notion of an equation as a predicate, and the symbolic manipulation of expressions. Our counter to this has two elements. The first is that even if a typical third grader can be programmed to carry out these manipulations their meaning, justification, and value are totally beyond his capabilities. Put differently, if a student can make sense of variables, equations as predicates, and symbolic manipulation then she is actually ready to learn algebra “for real” and as far as we know no one is seriously proposing algebra as a standard for the third grade curriculum. Our second point is that, as we hope to make clear in the following discussion, we have replaced notions that are beyond the ken of a third grader with concepts and principles the student can understand and which are ultimately far more fundamental and important to the student’s mathematical development.

These concepts include that of a mathematical function and relations and operations on functions as represented here by an “input/output machine.” The significance of these concepts cannot be overstated and given their importance, time spent developing the student’s intuition about them is time well spent. For this purpose we need not be restricted to numeric or even mathematical machines.

We have experience with many examples of objects or systems that behave like input/output machines. A vending machine provides a good example. The input to the machine is money and the output is candy or whatever products the vending machine is vending. Real vending machines are a little more complicated than this of course because the input is usually the money plus an item selection, which we may make by pressing a button or pulling a knob. We could picture such a machine this way.

There is no problem to extending the notion of input/output machine to allow multiple inputs. There is also no problem allowing input/output machines to have more than one output. For example, we might have an additional output for change.

A factory is another example of a kind of input/output machine. The inputs are the raw materials and the outputs are the finished goods. The factory below takes cocoa and sugar as inputs and outputs chocolate bars.

Of course, an input/output machine needn’t be made of brick or metal. A person baking cupcakes can be thought of as an input/output machine. The inputs are the ingredients (flour and so on) and the output is a cupcake. A leaf can be thought of as an input/output machine that takes sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide and outputs sugar and oxygen. An animal can be thought of as an input/output machine that takes oxygen and sugar as input and outputs water and carbon dioxide. You can even think of yourself putting on your shoes and socks as an input/output machine. The input is you in bare feet, a pair of socks and a pair of shoes and the output is you with your socks and shoes on.

The really interesting and important thing about input/output machines is that sometimes you can take two or more input/output machines and connect them together to make a new kind of input/output machine. As an example, suppose I sell machines and I’ve got two kinds of machines. One is a cupcake-making machine that makes cupcakes from mix. The other is a chocolate frosting machine that takes whatever you give it, (dogs, cats, kids, bats, balls, cookies, fruit, whatever!) and puts chocolate frosting on it.


One day I get a call from someone who wants a special machine that makes chocolate frosted cupcakes. I say, “Well we have a machine that makes cupcakes and we have a machine that puts chocolate frosting on things but I don’t have a machine that makes a chocolate frosted cupcake. Maybe the chief machine maker (the CMM) can figure out a way to make one?” The CMM says, “No problem, we’ll take a cupcake maker and a chocolate froster and connect the output of the cupcake maker to the input of the chocolate froster and we’ll put the whole thing in a box and call it the Chocolate Frosted Cupcake Maker.”

So now I’m selling three machines: my cupcake maker, my chocolate froster, and my chocolate frosted cupcake maker. After a while I add a “Cherry Topping” machine to my product line. The cherry topper takes whatever you put in and puts a cherry on top.

Things are going along well and then one day I get a call from a customer who wants a machine that will make a chocolate frosted cupcake with a cherry on top. I don’t make one so I go to my chief machine designer. He says, “No problem” and designs a machine consisting of a chocolate frosted cupcake-making machine connected to a cherry-topping machine with a box around the whole thing. So the contraption looks like this.


The operation of connecting two input/output machines is also called composition, as in forming a “composite” or “compound”. As any mathematician will agree, composition is the most fundamental operation in mathematics. Composition is what allows us to build arbitrarily complex assemblies, concepts, and theories from simple components. It is also the basis of logical deduction: if A can be derived from B and C can be derived from B then C can be derived from A. Not surprisingly, the most fundamental principle of mathematics concerns composition. We can describe this principle using a dishwasher.

As illustrated below, our dishwasher is built out of three component machines: a washer, a rinser, and a dryer.

The dishwasher is a machine that takes dirty plates as input and produces clean dry plates as output. Looking inside the dishwasher we see that the dirty plate first enters a washer which produces a clean but soapy plate as output. The soapy dish then enters the “rinser” which produces the clean but wet plate as output and the wet plate is then put through the dryer that produces the final output: a clean dry plate.

There are a number of different ways of organizing the components of the dishwasher. One way is just to view them as three separate elements of the dishwasher. Another, illustrated below, is to associate the Rinser with the Washer and view the pair as forming a Washer-Rinser machine which is then connected to a dryer.

Another way of viewing the components is to associate the Rinser with the Dryer to form a Rinser-Dryer machine and connect the Washer to the Rinser-Dryer.

Now we ask the question: does the way we view the organization of the components:

  • A washer connected to a rinser connected to a dryer or
  • A washer-rinser connected to a dryer or
  • A washer connected to a rinser-dryer

make any difference to the behavior of the dishwasher? To answer this question, consider the behavior of the dishwasher from the point of view of the plate. No matter how we view the organization of the components, all the plate “sees” is that it first gets washed by the washer and then gets rinsed by the rinser and then get dried by the drier. So the results are the same. This is the most fundamental principle of mathematics. It is sometimes called the associative law of composition. It says that no matter how we associate the components in a composition of input/output machines, for example associating the rinser with the washer vs. associating the rinser with the dryer, the behavior of the composite machine is the same.

The associative principle might lead us to ask whether the order in which machines appear in a composition matters. The answer is a definite yes! Consider a composite made up of two clothing machines: One accepts a person as input and puts on underwear and the second takes a person and puts on outerwear. If we connect the machines in one order we get a machine that properly dresses a person with underwear underneath and outerwear outside. If we connect the machines in the opposite order then we get machine that puts our underwear over our outerwear. These machines are definitely not equivalent. So in general, when connecting machines the order matters!

The crucial concept for solving problems like the one in our lesson, is the concept of inversion which we will represent by an “Un-machine.” Let’s consider an example.
Billy and Sally like to send love notes to one another in class. Since they don’t want other people to read them, they use a secret code. The way the code works is that each letter in the message is replaced by the letter that comes after it in the alphabet. So, “A” is replaced by “B”, “B” is replaced by “C”, and so on. Of course, “Z” have a following letter so we replace it with “A.” To decode the message we do just the opposite: replace “B” with “A”, “C” with “B”, …, “Z” with “Y”, and finally “A” with “Z”. We can picture this process in terms of an “alphabet circle” as illustrated below. The coding process substitutes the next letter in the clockwise direction and the decoding process substitutes the next letter in the counter clockwise direction..

When Billy sends the message, he codes it using the coding method, and when Sally receives it, she decodes it using the decoding method. We can visualize this in terms of input/output machines as in the following diagram.


So, what is done by the coding machine is undone by the decoding machine, so if I feed the output of the Coding machine into the decoding machine I get my input back. Put another way, if I connect the coding machine to the decoding machine I get a machine that outputs exactly what you put into it. For example we put “I love you” in and we got “I love you” out. A machine whose output is always identical to the input in is called an Identity machine. A telephone provides another example of an identity machine.

When you speak into the phone, a part of the phone called the microphone takes the sound as input and produces an electrical signal as output. The electrical signals are then sent to the phone of the person you are talking to where another machine called a speaker takes the electrical signal as input and produces the same sound for the other person. Again we have an example of a machine, in this case the speaker, which undoes what another machine, the microphone, does so that when the two are connected we get an identity machine for sounds. We will call a machine which undoes what another machine does an unmachine for the first machine. Thus the decoder is an unmachine for the coder and the speaker is an unmachine for the microphone.

If we have an unmachine for a machine then we can answer questions of the form: “What was the input that produced this output?” by feeding the output into the unmachine. Consider the “Add 2” machine. You put a number in and it outputs the number + 2. So if you input 5, it will output 7, and if you input 12 it will output 14. Suppose the output is 23 and we want to find the input? We can solve this problem if we can find an Un-Add 2 machine. How do we undo adding 2? Let’s look at some examples where we know the input.

So when we input 3 to Un-Add 2 we get 1 and when we input 4 we get 2 and when we input 11 we get 9. After we look at enough examples or perhaps we see immediately because our teacher explained subtraction that way, we realize the way you undo adding 2 is to subtract 2. So the Un-Add 2 machine is the Subtract 2 machine and feeding 23 into the subtract 2 machine gives us the answer 21. After a few more problems we realize that the way you undo adding any number is by subtracting that number. In mathematical terms addition of a number and subtraction of that number are inverse operations. In the same way we can discover that division by a number is the unmachine for multiplication by the number and thus we can solve problems like the one we started with.

To make things more interesting let’s combine multiplication and addition. Suppose the result of multiplying some number by 6 and then adding 14 is 56. What is the number?

So our problem is how to undo “Times by 6 and then adding 14”. After computing the value of times by 6 and then adding 14 for some different input we realize that a times by 6 and add 14 machine can be built by connecting a “Times 6” to an “Add 14” machine.

Now we know that “Divide by 6” undoes “Times 6” and “Subtract 14” undoes “Add 14”. Is there some way we can use these unmachines to build an unmachine for the composite?
Let’s consider a more familiar example: a two stage “dressing machine.” As illustrated in the first diagram below, the first component puts on my underwear and the second component puts on my pants and shirt. The second diagram shows the Un-dressing machine. It has two components: one that undoes putting pants and shirt and the other undoes putting on underwear. But notice that the order of the unmachines is the reverse of the order of the machines. If the last thing you did getting dressed was to put on your pants and shirt then the first thing you do in getting undressed is to take off your pants and shirt.

This is a general principle that works for all input/output machines, arithmetical or otherwise. If un-A is an unmachine for A and un-B is an un-machine for B then un-B connected to un-A is the unmachine for A connected to B. This is illustrated in the diagram below. An input “x” enters the A-B machine where it is first passed through A which generates an output “a” and then “a” is passed through B to produce an output “b.” If we then feed “b” into Un-B-Un-A, “b” is first passed through Un-B which must give us “a” back, and then “a” is passed through Un-A which must give us “x” back

Thus to undo Times 6 and then Add 14 we first subtract 14, to undo adding 14, and then divide by 6 to undo multiplying by 6. Feeding 56 to this unmachine we have

Indeed, 7 × 6 + 14 = 42 + 14 = 56.

In this article we have barely scratched the surface of what can be explained at an elementary level using concepts based on the notion of machine. In addition to using these concepts to prepare students for more advanced areas like algebra they can be used to provide a much deeper understanding of the meaning and use of numbers and operations on numbers. We will explore these ideas in a future article.

Top Business Schools In Singapore

Singaporeans are used to hearing from the authorities that theirs is a small country without natural resources, excepting human resource. Therefore, it needs hard work to develop this only resource that we possess to ensure our survival. Singapore has one of the highest literacy rates in the world, on par with developed nations like Sweden and Switzerland. These high proportion of diploma and degree graduates translates to economic success for the nationals. For quite a few years, the faculties of these top business schools of Singapore have drawn on their passion for teaching, their experience in working with organizations worldwide. The insights gained from their research to educate generations of leaders who have shaped the practice of business in every industry, in every country around the world. Let us take a look at a few of the top business schools in Singapore.

Top Business Schools

INSEAD Business School

The students can avail of a life changing opportunity through the management programs of INSEAD Business School in Singapore. It is the seat of learning MBA in Singapore. It also promises to offers them a life that will challenge their thought process. It not only gives them a different outlook but also helps them choose a bright future. How rapidly students rise through an organization depends on their knowledge, competence and confidence. The Management Acceleration Programme helps them learn how to manage greater responsibility and implement value-based management strategies. Through unique 360-degree coaching technique, the programme will guide all the students on a very personal journey that will challenge the way of conventional thinking.

The INSEAD MBA Curriculum

The MBA curriculum at INSEAD business school has been designed to provide its students the necessary skills and techniques that help them make a career for in the international business zone. INSEAD business school makes sure that the students are exposed to number of different types of work cultures. Students enrolled for MBA programs at the INSEAD Business School have to work in groups and study research-oriented topics. B-Schools of MBA in Singapore are known for their unique educational techniques and a thrilling student population that is a mixed blend of brilliant talents from different nationalities and cultures. The whole process is a great teacher for a bright feature in the international arena.

Faculty & Research

INSEAD Faculty are our finest asset, foundation of INSEAD’s reputation for research and teaching excellence who constantly combine rigor with relevance.

National University of Singapore (NUS) Business School

NUS Business school a leading institution of MBA in Singapore, established in the year 2002, is considered as one of the leading business schools in Asia and is also considered among one of the most popular international school.

Faculty in NUS

There are 100 full-time faculty members who are dedicated towards providing the take best training of there students in their field of management. The NUS programmes include individual assignments, group projects, case studies, quizzes and term papers. This infusion helps the candidates to get practical management knowledge which help them attain the skills required to succeed in any kind of business.

NUS main MBA students who undertake its programs can either enroll for the 17-month or 12-month course. The MBA course at NUS has five distinct areas for specialization.

Ranking of NUS MBA programme

Ranking of The NUS MBA programme made a quantum leap to 35th spot in Financial Times Global MBA Rankings Survey 2009. The NUS business School is ranked 3rd in Asia by the QS Global list if ‘200 Business Schools 2009’ only after the INSEAD Singapore as well as Melbourne Business School.

Nanyang Business School

The NANYANG MBA is an intensive international MBA that offers global perspective with an Asian focus. You should join this challenging program that equips them with relevant and innovative business knowledge and skills from highly qualified faculty with relevant industry experience and select group of participants in a diverse and multi cultural environment, right at the gateway to Asia, Singapore.

What An Experience!

The Nanyang Business School moulds a true leader out of you through its professional MBA programs – with a research, practical and industry-oriented outlook. Nanyang business school is considered as one of the finest school teaching MBA in Singapore.

Ambiance at NBS

The business schools offer an ambiance that is a blend of diverse cultures and business environment. The Nanyang Business School offers a student the distinct programs of general MBA and specialized MBA courses.

A Double masters degree!

The Double Masters Degree can be taken up at the Nanyang Business School. The subjects that the management courses at the Business School pride themselves in are accountancy, finance, international business, strategy, technology, marketing, international studies and knowledge management.

Baruch College, The City University of New York

Founded in 1847, Baruch College, The City University of New York is America’s largest AACSB accredited business school. Baruch College student tapped on an international network of over 100,000 alumni which includes 12 Nobel Laureate winners, one of the highest among public university worldwide.

Highly Innovative and Practical Focus curriculum

Besides the flagship EMBA program, Baruch executive MSc programs which includes the EMSc Finance, EMSc Marketing, EMSc HR and Psychology programs  offers highly practical focus curriculum unmatched by many any other executive program offered by major business schools in the United States,  These programs are  developed through intensive discussion and consultation among the faculty and senior corporate executives from a cross section of industries, large and small companies, not-for-profit organizations, and governmental agencies. It focuses on enhancing and strengthening management expertise at the executive level. The ultimate aim of the program is to equip you with a sharply honed understanding of the strengths and limitations of various “skills and knowledge” domains: firm resources, risk propensities, and external market-competitive and socio-political environmental constraints pertinent to those decisions.

World Class Faculty

Baruch handpicks faculty to teach in its Executive MBA Program, choosing them for their experience in teaching seasoned executives. The program’s reputation rests largely on the talent of the professors, who when not teaching, are conducting research and authoring papers that are published in the most influential professional journals in their respective fields.

The knowledge that they bring to the classroom, combined with peer-to-peer learning, create an educational experience second to none. The core faculty is supplemented with practitioners and executives from the business community, and faculty from other leading academic institutions. In addition to the tenured faculty, Baruch also invites adjunct professors with industry experience to teach in the program. Our adjunct faculty members include entrepreneurs, founders and CEOs whom have extensive real world business experience which they bring to the classroom each day

AACSB International – The Hallmark of a Quality Management Education

AACSB International – The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business is the hallmark of an internationally recognized qualification. National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University and Baruch College, The City University of New York, all offers programs that are accredited by AACSB which give its alumni the assurance that their qualifications are recognized global.

Teacher Education for Distance Education Teacher

Teacher Education for

Distance Education Teacher.

  1. Introduction -:

We find Open Universities and Distance Education Institutions in all  the Countries.  But we find no Teacher Education for Distance Education Teacher (DET) anywhere. The teachers in Convention Education System (CES) and Distance Education System (DES) perform different tasks. Therefore, the skills acquired for teaching in CES may not be useful in DES.  According to the Manual for Self-Study of Distance Education Institutions, published by National Assessment and Accreditation , Banglore. There are more than ten Open Universities in India, where we find  more than 20,00,000 students are studying and more than 50,000 Counsellors are serving. Every University has the Directorate of Distance Education. Every Open University has its study centres. The teachers, working there, are from CES. Sometimes lecturers are conducted on the name of counselling. Teacher is expected to find out the field need. He is not able to write a script for A/V production. We find him lacking in the skills required for DES. It leads the thought of teacher education for DES teacher.

2. Academic Task in DES and the Role of a Teacher.

Broadly speaking there are two distinct types of academic functions in DES.

  • Discipline based development of courses/programmes.
  • System development and delivery of service.

It includes preparation of learning packages, preparation and maintenance of courses including Audio/Video programs and planning, development of system and procedures including evaluation of students, and research into various aspects of the system itself includes the delivery of various services to students and evaluation of programs.

As it is quoted in the Report of The Committee on the Structure for the Academic and Student Support Services System of the University and the Pattern of its Staffing conducted by IGNOU, New Delhi, in DES, Teachers are necessary for imparting instruction or for preparing educational material of for conducting other academic activities including guidance, designing & delivery of courses, and evaluation of the work done by the students.

The DES requires the services of certain specialist personnel who may not be teachers of administrators in the traditional sense. They would be performing a wide spectrum of functions which combine managerial/administrative competence with academic sensitivity and understanding. The performance of such intermediate level functions and the development of a category of specialist personnel for the purpose is necessary for the success of the DES.

3. Skills required to perform the Tasks and to perform the Role of Teacher -:

The skills required for a DES teacher are different than that of CES teacher. In CES, face -to-face teaching -learning process is going on. Therefore, the teacher has to acquire teaching skills and various methods of teaching in face-to-face situation. But in DES, the learners are in remote places, and their age group is not same. They study at their sphere time and most of the time independently. Considering these factors, teacher in DES has to acquire certain skills. A teacher in DES may not use all these skills at a time but these will be used task wise. He may carry this task or that. Therefore, he has to acquire all these skills in Teacher Education. The list of skills are as given below, One may add other skills also. But these are core skills required for DES Teacher.

  • Skills for designing Courses/Programs.
  • Skills for preparation of meetings.
  • Skills for writing Course units & program guides.
  • Skills for proof reading.
  • Skills for content and language editing.
  • Skills for the designing of the cover-page of print material, including graphics & illustrations.
  • Skills for writing scripts for Audio and Video programs.
  • Skills for conducting orientation programs and workshops.
  • Skills for preparing, checking and monitoring the feedback of assignments.
  • Skills for bringing out revision of the courses/programs and bringing out completely new edition of courses.
  • Skills for preparation and production of Audio/Video program.
  • Skills for interacting with other agencies, especially heads of the Educational institutions and Managers of the Industries companies.
  • Skills for counseling advice and guidance to the students.
  • Skills for developing question banks and conducting Assessment programs.
  • Skills for evaluating the students’ performance.
  • Skills for evaluating the programs.
  • Skills for planning to develop the courses/programs.
  • Skills for Translation.
  • Skills for designing and development of training material.
  • Skills for Training and orientation of counsellors.
  • Skills for presenting a paper in a Seminars.
  • Skills for performing researches for the system development and for discipline based development of courses/ programs.
  • Skills for handling illustruments, new technology.
  • Skills for presenting radio and T.V. talks.
  • Skills for presenting lessons on virtual classroom and monitoring these class rooms.

4. Teacher Education for DES Teacher -:

No one denies to accept pre-service teacher training degrees/ certificates in teacher education as a qualification for seeking employment as a teacher. The teacher education may be imparted through CES or through DES. The National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) accepts distance education as a useful and viable mode for training teachers presently serving in schools. This mode is also useful for providing training and continuing education support for other functionaries working in the school system, Thus, it is also useful for training the teacher in DES.

Teacher Education is a special requirement for a teacher in DES. One should acquire the skills to work as a teacher in DES. Though it can be given by CES, it is fruitful to start Teacher Education through DES. One should get a practical experiences to acquire the skills needed for him in DES.

5. Nature of Teacher Education for DES.

To implement Teacher Education through DES, it is necessary to decide programme components as given below.

  • Adequate amount of self-learning printed course-material in distance education format.
  • Provision for audio and video packages.
  • Regular assignments which are fully evaluated within stipulated time.
  • Internship provision and its duration.
  • Evaluation shall be comprehensive and continuous.
  • Duration.
  • Contact programs.
  • Practicals.
  • Eligibility.
  • Evaluation system.

The program components may be added by the Expert Committee called for the purpose.

6. Conclusion -:

Teacher Education is necessary not only for the teachers working in CES but also for the teachers working in DES. The skills required teachers working in DES are somewhat different from those of teachers working in CES. It is necessary to give special attention to acquire the skills for the teachers working in DES. There is no Teacher education available for training DES teachers, Therefore, the teachers working in the DES or the teachers who are going to work in the DES will welcome teacher education in this field.

References -:

(1) The Report of The Committee on the Structure for the Academic and Student Support Services System of the University and the Pattern of its Staffing Conducted by IGNOU, New Delhi.

(2) Manual for Self-Study of Distance Education Institutions, published by National Assessment and Accreditation 2/4 Dr. Raj Kumar Road, P. Office No. 1075, Rajajinagar, Banglore – 560 010

(3) Norms and Standards for Teacher Education Institutions; Published by National Council for Teacher Education, C-2/10, Safadarjung, Development Area, New Delhi.

(4) Comparative Chart of Open Universities in brief published by Distance Education Council, New Delhi.

(5) ‘Five Years Plans’ and ‘Annual Reports’ published by Y.C.M. Open University, Nashik.

Home School Education – Advantages And Disadvantages

Why Parents Choose a Home School Education
An increasing number of children today are receiving a home school education. The reasons for making the choice to homeschool their kids varies from family to family but there are three main reasons why parents are removing their children from the public school system and giving them a home school education.
The first reason is that the public education system in the United States is struggling to provide a proper education for the nation’s children with out of date text books, run down school buildings and inadequate equipment. Provision of a home school education enables the parents to have control over the quality of the educational materials used by their children and the general conditions in which they are educated.
The second reason is that parents wish to assume more control over the influences their children will be exposed to. This is often on the basis of religious grounds but, very often, it is simply because a home school education will ensure the child learns the values upheld by the family and is taught from an early age what behavior is appropriate. Unfortunately, many public schools have a poor reputation for instilling good discipline in students. This often results in badly behaved children disrupting lessons and preventing their peers from getting the full benefit of classes. Discipline and the upholding of proper standards of behavior is an important part of a home school education.
The third reason many parents choose to give their children a home school education is fear for their safety. Violence is on the increase everywhere and the public school system has not escaped this trend. Violence in the public education system is getting worse and the individual acts of violence are more serious. Since the shocking events at Columbine High School there have been further tragedies involving firearms where teachers and students have been injured or killed. A home school education ensures the safety of children who would otherwise be seriously at risk of harm.

The Disadvantages of Opting For Homeschooling

Providing a home school education is not simply a matter of parental choice. In most cases the state education board of the state in which the family resides will have to approve a decision to give a child a home school education. The person taking on the responsibility of homeschooling must be certified to be a home teacher, the curriculum must follow the state curriculum, and the text books and other educational materials to be used must be approved by the state. Although this might seen like undue interference in what is a matter of personal choice, the state has a responsibility to ensure that all children receive an adequate standard of education and checks will be made to ensure that any child being kept away from public school is being properly educated.

A home school education might mean that a child is deprived of certain opportunities which would have been available within the public school system. There could be difficulties in providing facilities for athletic children to realize their potential. Musically talented children could be similarly disadvantaged. In some states there is provision for children receiving a home school education to take part in amenities such as being able to attend sports lessons and join after-school clubs. However, the level of assistance provided to homeschooling parents is not uniform and varies a lot from state to state.
The final potential disadvantage to affect children receiving a home school education is that they will not develop the social skills which will be important as they grow up. Social interaction with their peers and with adults outside the family is essential if a child is going to grow up with a properly balance personality and a reasonable level of social skills. These developmental issues can be fairly easily overcome if the child lives in a state where homeschooling parents are given support and the child receiving a home school education is accepted into classes and extra-curricular activities.
The decision to keep a child out of the public education system is not one any parent would make lightly and any weighing up of the pros and cons must take into account the level of support the state will provide. However, if the public school system continues to deteriorate, the number of children receiving a home school education is bound to increase.

Homeschooling and it’s Advantage

Homeschooling is really an intensifying movement about the country and the entire world, during which moms and dads choose to educate their little ones in the home rather than transmitting the crooks to a conventional open or even individual school. Individuals choose homeschooling for many different causes, such as discontentment using the instructional available options, diverse non secular morals or even instructional philosophies, as well as the fact that little ones aren’t growing inside conventional school framework.

The homeschooling movement commenced rising within the 1970s, whenever some popular authors as well as experts, for instance David Holt as well as Dorothy as well as Raymond Moore, started talking about instructional change, that they encouraged homeschooling as a substitute instructional alternative. Using the Nationwide Home Schooling Analysis Start, these days there are over two thousand little ones becoming homeschooled within U.S., using the percent rapidly growing by 7 % to 15 % every year. Homeschooling is actually appropriate in all of the 50 says as well as in most unusual countries.

Do you know the prerequisites?

Legitimate prerequisites for homeschooling within U.S., changes from place to place. A number of says possess handful of or even simply no prerequisites; other folks obtain account testimonials or even standardized tests on selected time intervals.

As outlined by Holt, creator on the best-selling book Train your own personal, it is important moms and dads ought for homeschooling their little ones is actually “to just like them, appreciate their organization, their actual occurrence, their energy, foolishness, as well as love. They must appreciate all their speak as well as concerns, and enjoy equally trying to answer individuals concerns. Inches For the majority associated with moms and dads whom home school, the only real requirement is the wish for this, and also devotion for the instructional method.

Home school materials is usually high-priced, affordable or even free. Take care to never invest a lot you can’t modify training course when you remember to prepare money. You can understand as well as producing modifications. Make the most of most of these chances to be lent materials as well as to find some good free provides straight up to your residence school.

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Materials for residence educational institutions:

This site possesses internet areas for actual materials, curriculum as well as provides. Have the homeschooling as well as instructional for a lesser amount of. You might mail away for. Free of charge stuff that’s available on-line is actually under the relevant web site in other places with A to Z Home’s Cool. Utilize the website list or even website internet search engine proceeding to uncover free internet methods.

Elementary School Speeches Are About New Beginnings

Elementary school graduation speeches should reflect the age of the students. For that reason they should be short, have a touch of humour and be very easy to understand.

Elementary School speeches need to have the personal touch. They should refer to events and happenings during the school life of the students in question. It might be about a trip abroad or about an important volleyball match they played.  If the speaker is a teacher he or she should speak of adventures shared together over their time at that Elementary School.

Obviously such speeches should include a welcome to the parents of the children graduating.  They should be light-hearted in tone because after all you are celebrating. The students should be told that the celebration is for and about them. You should mention how proud their school is of them and how you know they will be a credit to you whatever new school they attend.

Elementary School speeches should reflect the fact that young children believe that wonderful things can happen. They should encourage them to believe in their hopes and dreams. They should speak of working hard to make those dreams come true.

Such children might also be a little apprehensive about the future, about leaving friends behind as they move on. Such speeches should be reassuring and comforting painting a picture of what is going to happen when they go on to their new school. The speeches should clarify the fact that there will be someone there to guide them and show them the ropes.

Teachers often have a great bond with elementary students and their Elementary School speeches should reflect this fact. The students should know that they can always go back to their old school for advice or guidance because someone who has known you as a child will know your capabilities and understand your worries. They should be always made to feel that they will be welcome back to their Elementary School.   In fact you can make them laugh when you tell them they might even come visiting when they become President.

Above all, Elementary graduation speeches should paint pictures.  You might compare their move to that of someone at a certain stage in a race or to an actor who has a certain  part in a play where he/she have yet to learn their lines and moves.  Elementary School speeches should end with a blessing or good luck wish.

Developing Global business leaders and responsible citizens at XIMB, XUB

Xavier University Bhunabeswar (XUB) has been established in accordance with the Xavier University, Odisha Act, 2013 and this is a private self-financing institution of higher learning for imparting professional and technical education. Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar (XIMB), a 28 years old Business School is the flagship School of Xavier University. XIMB, with its origin in a “Social Contract” between the then Government of Odisha and the Odisha Jesuit Society, was created in 1987. It is acknowledged internationally as a world class business school which provides quality management programs, and develops futuristic business leaders with strong work ethics and personal values.

Inspired by the Jesuit spirit of ‘Magis’, Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar (XIMB), strives to be a premier institute, globally recognized for management education, training, research and consulting that help build a society. This management institute is perhaps one of its kinds when it comes to rural development and highlighting issues of the deprived sections of the society. Centre for Development Research & Training(CENDERET)is a special wingcreated at XIMB,to emphasize on improving the quality of life of the vulnerable and the most neglected. Initiativesare undertaken round the year by students in association with corporate stake holders to create awareness on something which directly affectthem or to promote things which can improve their lives.

According toProf. Dr. Fr. Paul Fernandes S.J.,Vice-Chancellor & Director, “XIMB has its roots embedded into tradition, through the inculcation of a value system that nurtures its students into hardcore professionals and most importantly, responsible citizens.Sensitizing the next generation business leaders on the triple bottom line of sustainability i.e. social, ecological and financial and being accountable for people, planet & profit, is a common agenda for our faculty.”

Known for its academic excellence and quality research work, XIMB is considered as one of the top 3 B-Schools in Eastern India, along with IIM Calcutta &XLRI Jamshedpur and has consistently been ranked as one of the best management institutes of India, ranked between 2 and 13 by all B-School ranking surveys of the country.

With the new found status of university, XUB now offers MBA degree in sustainability management along with the flagship programs in business management and human resource management. XUB proposes to set up Schools in areas like Public Policy, Education and Centers of Research in Public Policy among other streams. The highest compensation offered in 2015 was INR 20.5 lakhs p.a,highest international being 34.7 USD. Average compensation offered was INR 12.65 lakhs for Business Management, INR 11.39 lakhs for human resource, higher than what was offered at the many of the young IIM campuses.

The international student exchange program is also one of the best in the country having several tie ups with institutions in S. Africa, France, Poland, U.S, Belgium, Spain, Ukraine, Germany to name some. To apply to XIMB, XUB one has to appear in XAT, CAT,GMAT or their own test X-GMAT.

Teacher Professional Development for Multicultural Education

Communication skills are critical for success in any classroom. In multicultural education, communication skills are even more important because students and teachers often face language and cultural barriers at the same time. Teacher professional development can help to train teachers to adjust to a multicultural classroom and foster a collaborative environment that is beneficial to their students and other educators.

When learning to teach in multicultural education, there are several important ideas that teachers must become familiar with. First, the teacher should educate him- or her-self on a variety of cultural influences in our society, and in particular the cultural influences specific to the location where he or she is teaching. Having things in common is one of the best ways to create strong relationships, and teachers can make their students feel more at ease by laying the groundwork for a successful team (team = classroom). Multicultural teacher professional development should include resources and suggestions for cultural influences that teachers should familiarize themselves with.

An ambitious end goal for a multicultural education program would be to restructure our schools to promote equality and acceptance for all students and educators. We may be on the way towards that objective, but there is still much work to be done. Multicultural education can be improved via changes in all areas of a school’s framework – the curriculum, the way teachers teach, how students are grouped together, how students are tested, and community participation. The diversity of backgrounds of students (low or high income, native or non-native English speakers, feminist or male-dominated cultures, Western or Eastern background, and even mono- versus multi-cultural exposure, and more) should be accounted for; all students’ situations must be taken into consideration. Incorporating these changes is a large undertaking and an ongoing endeavor.

Once teachers have a good idea of the existing cultural differences, they must learn to apply the findings that are relevant to their situation and they must learn to employ strategies to facilitate communication within their classroom across the different cultural backgrounds present. Even in a classroom that is not so diverse, it is still important for students to learn multicultural education skills because they will undoubtedly be in situations later on in life that will require those skills.

So here are some action steps for teachers when beginning to learn teacher professional development for multicultural education:
–Look at your current teaching strategy: what methods are you using? What textbooks and workbooks are in the classroom? What is the curriculum? Do all of these things incorporate components of multicultural education?
–Involve your students in your learning process as well. Ask them for their input about what they know already and what they want to know.
–Ask questions of both your students and yourself – find out how they know what they know already and where the knowledge gaps are.
–Look at the topics you are teaching/learning from different cultural perspectives. Then relate these topics to your students’ life experiences and our current society.
–Explore the cultures present in your classroom and learn about what differences may exist.

Teacher professional development is a great way to embrace and learn about multicultural education. These topics are important for all teachers to learn!

Teacher Professional Development Via Online Graduate Courses for Teachers

There are a number of options for teachers searching for online graduate courses. Online graduate courses for teachers can be used for continuing education (CEUs), in-service credit, or graduate credit. Teacher professional development via these online graduate courses can be put towards a salary increase, license recertification, or other forms of job advancement. Many universities offer online graduate courses for teachers, especially in teacher professional development.

There are a number of benefits to approaching teacher professional development through online courses. For the teachers, these courses can help them meet state requirements, they can get raises, and (most importantly!) they can learn skills and methods of teaching that they can use immediately in the classroom. For the school districts and states, online courses also have a host of advantages. Online teacher professional development allows teachers to spend less time commuting to classes and more time preparing and working in the classroom. Often online options are less expensive as well, so whether the district or the teacher is paying, money is saved. It’s easier for school districts to monitor the certification process (initially and ongoing).

Through online graduate courses for teachers school districts can help their educators develop the skills necessary to excel and provide the students with the best education possible. These courses have a variety of ways to measure competence as well. Since these courses can be offered for all teachers at a school, they can even discuss the materials learned in a discussion environment if the school wants to set up a time for that. By working together, teachers still get an interactive education from online teacher professional development.

Some of the most common trouble areas that schools face in terms of teacher professional development are: 1) developing a basic framework for how to teach, 2) communication between teachers and administration about what exactly the teachers need, 3) teaching ESL students, and 4) effectively teaching students that are not the norm – underachievers, gifted students, and special education. Other topics that are often the subject of teacher professional development have to do with technology – integrating technology in the classroom, using technology to simplify grading and creating assignments, making websites for classes so that students have up to date information, and learning how to teach these students that are so immersed in technology constantly.

It should be noted that in addition to professional development, teachers can also get other graduate credit online as well as completing entire Master’s of Education programs online. There are options for just about everything. Many online programs also have agreements with local schools so that teachers have access to materials and technology that they might not already have. These agreements can be very helpful for teachers taking online courses.

If a school district is looking for a solution to teacher professional development, online graduate courses for teachers may be a very good opportunity to take advantage of. Teachers can meet state requirements and enhance their skillsets; they can also interact with other teachers in their district who are taking the same programs.

Top 12 Pioneers in Education

You don’t need to venture into the Old West or shutte into space to be a pioneer.  These Top 12 pioneers in education have explored much rougher terrain to shape modern learning.

Horace Mann (1796-1859) Pioneer of American Public School Education
Horace Mann grew up in a time when education was not easily obtained for those that lived in the poor rural areas of America.  Though his own early education was limited, he attended Browns University, studied law, and later enjoyed a highly successful political career.  It was during his time serving as a representative and senator in the legislature of Massachusetts and lastly Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education that he used his influence to advance change in the American educational system.  We can thank Horace Mann for teacher training colleges, free libraries, and free public education to all children through taxation.

Freidrich Froebel (1782-1852) Pioneer of Early Childhood Education
Freidrich Froebel was a German educator whose philosophy of education influenced such people as Horace Mann and Maria Montessori.  Based on the belief that a young child possessed innate qualities that would unfold gradually within a natural setting, he established kindergartens where free expression, creativity, social interaction, motor activity and learning by doing were the focus.  Many of these same tenets can be found in our contemporary early childhood programs.

Charlotte Mason (1842-1923) Pioneer of Home Education
A citizen of Britain, Charlotte Mason’s dream was that all children, no matter what social class, should have the opportunity to obtain a liberal arts education.   She was dedicated to improving the way in which children were educated.  Seeing the importance of educating parents in areas of discipline and the training of children, she began the Parents’ Education Union.  It was her belief that children learn best through “living books” rather than dry textbooks and through real experiences.  Her methods included an emphasis on the enjoyment of the arts and the study of great artists and musicians.  Many of her educational practices were well suited to home education and her methods have become the foundation of many homeschooling families.

Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Pioneer of How Children Learn
Anyone who has taken a child psychology class will have studied the developmental and learning theories of Jean Piaget, the Swedish psychologist. Fascinated with how children reasoned, he began researching and writing books on the subject of child psychology.  When he later married and fathered three children, he was supplied with enough data to write three more books!  His research and subsequent theories have become the basis and foundation of our understanding of normal child development.

Margaret Bancroft (1854-1912) Pioneer of Special Education
Bancroft’s intelligence, imagination, and dedication to her students set her apart as an extraordinary educator.  At the age of 25, she embarked on a courageous and lonely endeavor by opening the first private boarding school in Haddonfield, New Jersey, for children with developmental delays.  She believed that disabled children needed special schools, adapted material, and well trained teachers rather than to be sent to institutions.  Bancroft’s students responded to her love and patience and individually-tailored instruction.  Under her influence, the medical profession began to awaken to their responsibility to help correct defects and disabilities in children.  Admirers of her skill came to train and later became leaders in the field of special education.

Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) Pioneer of Education for African-Americans
Born into slavery and later freed, Washington knew first hand the difference an education can make in a person’s life.  As a young man, Washington was appointed to head the Tuskegee Institute now called Tuskegee University, which was originally a teacher’s training college for African-Americans.  He was leader of the college from its infancy to the time of his death.  He became a dominant and influential figure among politicians and the general public and did much to pave the way for later civil rights and desegregation of public education.  It was his belief that education was the African-American community’s best chance for social equality and a better future.

John Dewey (1859-1952) Pioneer of Progressive Education
It was while he was a professor of philosophy and the head of the Chicago University’s teacher college, that Dewey exerted his greatest influence in education and promoted many educational reforms through his experimental schools.  It was his view that children should be encouraged to develop “free personalities” and that they should be taught how to think and to make judgments rather than to simply have their heads filled with knowledge.  He also believed that schools were places where children should learn to live cooperatively. A member of the first teacher’s union, he was concerned for teacher’s rights and their academic freedom.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952) Pioneer of Individualized Education
Montessori methods remain the popular choice for many parents who seek an alternative education for their children, especially for the early childhood through the primary years. Before she took an interest in education, Montessori was the first woman in Italy to obtain the training to become a doctor.  She was assigned the post of medical care to the patients of a mental institution and it was there that she encountered “backward” children igniting her passion for education.  Beginning with a daycare facility in one of the poorest neighborhoods in Rome, Montessori put her theories into practice. Her methods were influenced by her previous training in medicine, education, and anthropology.   The results were extraordinary and soon drew much attention from many parts of the world, including America.  The rest, as they say, is history.

John Holt (1923-1985) Pioneer and Advocate for Home Education
Talk about going full circle.  Whereas Horace Mann fought for the free public education of all children, Holt raised awareness of the need for reform in America’s public schools.  As an educator, he became convinced that the present system stifled the learning of most children mainly because of fear.  Disillusioned by the inability to bring reform and improvement to public schools, Holt left teaching and devoted his time to the promotion of his ideas.   He believed that children learn best when allowed to follow their own interests rather than having learning imposed upon them. His exposure to proponents of home education lead him to later conclude that the best place to set up a natural environment for learning was within a child’s home.  His books had a profound impact on the growth of the home schooling sector.

Marie Clay (1926-2007) Pioneer of Balanced Literacy Model and Reading Recovery
Born in Wellington, New Zealand, Marie Clay became an international leader in the study of children’s acquisition of literacy.  Her methods of teaching reading and written language have swept through the United States and other English speaking nations since their inception three decades ago.  The reading recovery component was developed as a means of lifting the low achieving first grader to a place alongside the average learner.  The structure of the program calls for close observation of the student by the teacher to design lessons that constantly build on what a child already knows and taking them to the next level.  Children are surrounded by a language rich environment and encouraged to choose reading books that align with their personal interests.

Jerome Bruner (1915-)  Pioneer of Discovery Learning Theory
To combat the behaviorist approach to education, Bruner developed cognitive psychology and promoted a constructivist approach.  His discovery learning theory is based on the assumption that children learn and remember better what they discover for themselves and that they are better able to remember new information if they connect it to something that they already know. His research and subsequent theories on child development closely aligns with the work of Jean Piaget.

Howard Gardner (1943-)  Pioneer of Multiple Intelligences Theory
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences has redefined educators’ views of how students learn and should be assessed. Historically, intelligence has been measured through the ability to problem solve and to demonstrate cognitive ability through various controlled verbal and performance type tasks.   Gardner’s theory broadens the field of how individuals display their intelligence by including linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, special, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligences.  Through his influence there has been a greater emphasis placed on performance testing and educators have become more conscious of the need for diversification of instructional strategies to match the learning styles and strengths of students.

Disadvantages of Home Schooling

If you are concerned about the education your child is receiving at either a public or private school, you may have considered the option of home schooling. There are many advantages to home schooling that are easy to think of, but in making your decision you must also consider the disadvantages. Yes, despite all the bonuses you can think of in home schooling your child, there are many disadvantages to the process.
Home schooling is a process that requires a massive amount of time and dedication. If you want to home school your child you must be present for a large part of the day. Kids are kids. Depending on how motivated by academic success your child is, he or she may not require constant supervision. However, in many studies, parental supervision is the key behind the success of home schooling programs.
Parents must also possess instructional skills or access to someone who can teach effectively. Simply putting your child in a room with textbooks will most likely result in home schooling failure. In addition, you will have to purchase materials that public and private schools provide for students.
There is also the need to be able to serve as guidance counselor as your child may require specialized instruction due to a learning disability. Public and private schools usually provide these services with qualified individuals.

One important benefit of an academic institution is the opportunity for children to become properly socialized. Attending school with other children from all walks of life leads to the development of social skills. One of the disadvantages of home schooling is the relative isolation children have from their peers.
Many parents find comfort in blaming the educational system for the shortcomings in their child’s academic performance. If you choose to home school you will be accepting full responsibility for the outcome of your child’s education. This is more of a burden than it seems. Studies have shown that many home schooling ventures fail due to the fact that the home generally lacks qualified educators. Many parents have gripes about teachers, but the fact is that they generally have to teach large classes filled with children with diverse learning needs. In addition, certified educators have taken teaching classes and have passed state examinations to receive their teaching certificates.
When you approach the issue of home schooling you must examine both sides. Sure, there are plenty of advantages, but if you forget to look into the disadvantages, you may be setting yourself up for failure.

Strategies To Help Reduce Elementary School Classroom Noise

Children can be noisy. While noise may simply be a part of working with children, a noisy classroom environment can be disruptive. Excess noise can also negatively impact the learning environment For these reasons; teachers should take steps to reduce the amount of student noise especially in elementary classrooms. Here are some classroom management techniques that can help to reduce the level of student noise in an elementary school classroom.

One of the best ways to reduce noise in your classroom is to set a positive example for your students. If you as a teacher are loud or shout often in your classroom, you are showing your students by example that noise is acceptable. If you doubt that this is so, try speaking to your students in a calm and quiet voice. You will surely notice a difference in the noise levels in your classroom.

Another way to reduce the noise level in your classroom is to have a “quiet” signal. This signal can be used to quiet down students when necessary instead of shouting at the children to be quiet. Your signal may be holding a book above your head or making a sign with your hand. When your students observe the sign, they should sit down and be quiet. You can reward students who are quick to respond to the signal which will help to reinforce the importance of the concept.

Some classroom noise can be attributed to noisy classroom furniture. Chairs that squeak or wobble or loud desk hinges can not only create noise, but these things can be very distracting for some students. A good way to reduce chair noise is to cut an X in a tennis ball and put the ball over the bottom of the desk chair leg. You can also cover the desk legs too if you move your classroom furniture frequently during lessons.

Noise levels can also become loud when your students are traveling from the classroom to other areas of the building. In order to keep noise levels low during these times, you can keep your students busy by asking them to walk on one of the lines in the floor tiles with their hands down straight at their sides. Your students will be busy concentrating on walking on the line and will not be thinking about chatting with friends.

Another time when noise levels can become unacceptable is after students finish their seat work. Some students will finish early and other students may still be finishing up their work. Students who have finished early may be tempted to talk during these times. One way to reduce noise levels during these times is to have a quiet time activity options available. Perhaps students can read a book brought from home or they can listen quietly to their iPods. Other students may want to color from coloring pages.

Of course, it does take some time and effort to change student behavior. Students who have been used to a loud classroom may need verbal reminders as well as positive reinforcement. It may require diligence to enforce classroom quiet rules. Over time, you will notice a big difference in the noise levels that exist in your classroom.

Reduction in noise levels will mean that students are better able to concentrate on their school work. Lower noise levels also can reduce stress levels and create a positive atmosphere which can benefit for teachers and students.

Why Is Pre-school Education Important for Children?

While pre-schools don’t follow the same structure of elementary schools and there are no formal rules and regulations, there is a chance to learn a lot through them by exploring and playing under the guidance of helpful and caring teachers. They are important in helping a child gain some basic knowledge and pick up information that can also be useful once he starts elementary school.
Studies show that pre-schools aid a child’s development and students who have attended these schools do not require special education classes. Some of the major benefits of pre-school education for children are listed below.
Importance of pre-school education:
Acquire social skills – The best things that two to five year old children learn through various activities at pre-school are social skills. They learn how to follow instructions and how to co-operate with other young children in different activities. They tend to work together while drawing and construct different things in building sessions. By attending pre-schools children find their true social self as they find kids of the same age there. Toddlers who might not have blossomed at home can really sparkle at pre-school and children who are shy can learn to overcome their introvert tendencies too.
Learn the basics through play – The activities at pre-school are designed in such a manner that the kid learn a lot of basics while having fun with their peers. The singing activity introduces children to letters and alphabets and the block counting introduces them to numbers. When they hear stories they get introduced to sentence formation as well as language skills. The child can also get some exposure to biology and geology through nature walks and to colors and shapes through puzzles and finger painting activities.
Encourage creativity – Children get a lot more opportunities of building their creative minds through various crafty and artistic activities designed by pre-school teachers. They often don’t show their creative self at homes for fear of getting a scolding fo the mess it might create. With no such fear at pre-schools, they are able to explore the limits of their curious and imaginative minds.

Develop motor skills – A good pre-school also arranges various activities throughout the day in which the child has to run and climb. Activities like interactive games can also improve the child’s physical development and balance. With simple scissor cutting and bead threading tasks, a child’s motor skills as well as hand-eye coordination can develop. The group activities develops their physical as well as motor skills.
Therefore, parents should select the nursery schools so that their children get a strong base from their very childhood. Children who don’t attend pre-schools often encounter difficulty in following instructions, rules and regulations. Teachers who teach in kindergarten also say that children are better prepared to learn when they have already been taught socializing skills at preschool before.
Thus, attending pre-schools helps a child adjust easily to kindergartens. There are a lot of pre-schools in Abu Dhabi that have started to accept children when they are only two and a half years old, while there are others that admit kids after they celebrate their third or fourth birthdays. The top nurseries in Abu Dhabi, UAE try to give the best possible education to children so that the children can develop into better human beings in future.

If you are searching for top nurseries in Abu Dhabi, then the author of this article recommends Caterpillar Nursery.

Unitedworld School of Business- a opportunity to work with great Management Gurus of India

Unitedworld Business schools are the leading B schools in India from last couple of years. It provides opportunity to be placed in some of the renowned multinational companies around the world. It not only offers knowledge but also support their students to create their overall unique personality. It actually develops future managers and administrators for our nation. Unitedworld School of business offers quality education and practical knowledge which is essential for each and every student of the institute. Teachers share their practical knowledge and working experiences with the students which help them in grooming their future. This institute train students in such a unique way so that students can meet all challenges in their upcoming life.

Unitedworld B-School has brought the few amazing innovations which include:

• Intelligent Campus
• CEO Lecture Series
• Live content engine
• Eduberry
• Live content Engine
• Brand & strategy workshop

Why students will choose United-B School?

This B school of business offers various facilities to its students

Intelligent Campus/Eduberry: This system helps students to keep connected with the all faculties and the same follow for faculties as well, which results in extreme growth of students on these virtual platforms. Students will be having complete schedule for all classes, different exams & all other projects. It develops a new learning atmosphere for their learners to get all the knowledge and other details very quickly.

Brand strategy and regular workshops: Unitedworld Business schools conduct regular workshops for their students which help to gain knowledge through practical’s and experiences.

CEO lecture: Unitedworld School of Business invite personalities from renowned institutes and organizations for lectures in their business schools. They directly interact with their students & share experiences. Which results in understanding working of organizations well as many more features about different organization.

Live Content Engine: Recent business news gets provided anytime to the students at the time of need and they can operate them by own.

Multilayer placements scenario: This institute has created a three tier framework in order to create attractive opportunities for students.

Degree and Certification offered:

Unitedworld School of Business offers PGDM PGPM+MBA courses. It has built first ‘intelligent Campus’ in India. With award winning Education ERP systems, this institute offers technologically for advanced learning atmosphere on-campus and off-campus. It has exclusive arrangement of ERP Structure in other autonomous Business-Schools in India. Personalized support is given to all individuals of institutions. The campus is fully high speed Wi-Fi enabled and well managed temperature as well. All students 24 hours are connected with high speed virtual system by their Laptops and phones.

International Business Camp

Students in this business management school get an opportunity to join International Business Camp help at Singapore campus. It an important camp for Master Degree in Business Management courses as they get an opportunity to show their capacity on Global Business platform. Students get chances to emerge to Open Economics Movement of Unitedworld B- School. It’s really a delightful opportunity to stay influenced and connect with known Management Gurus of India, Indian Born Economists as well as some Corporate Executives.

Teachers’ Perception and Attitudes towards Teaching as a Profession

INTRODUCTION

Work is a hard word to define. Most of the definitions refer to useful, prolific activity, and the effort by which someone earns a living. People work to gain an identity.  Identity is the way to enjoy using their skills and talents and also enjoy working hard to improve those skills. A job is a collection of responsibilities that one agrees to perform for an employer. A profession is actually a collection of jobs involving similar tasks.

In Pakistan, parents usually plan the prospective professions for their children. However, the rising graph of un-employment leaves no choice for literate people but to agree to avail the opportunity for earning in the closer field. The happiest and most successful people are those who do plan. In learning organizations, people believe in the work ethics. And people’s attitude is their basic stance on life.

In recent times, there has been a growing interest for teaching to be considered as a corporate profession in private sector of Lahore, which demands to introduce not only qualified but also well-equipped teachers into teaching industry. In Lahore, where there are opportunities offered to qualified professionals to serve in diverse fields, people are intending to join teaching as a life-career exclusive of adequate teaching skills. However, teaching young children has traditionally be seen as having far more to do with inculcating acceptable standards of behaviour and conformity’ (Groundwater-Smith, Ewing & Le Cornu, 2003, p. 41). Piaget and Vygotsky illuminate the responsibility of adults in the “context of learning” and “social interaction” (Alfrey, 2003). Therefore, certainly teachers’ role become more challenging and demanding as they are considered to be well organized with teaching skills and have certain level of teaching autonomy rather than being ‘in authority’ or ‘an authority’ in the learning process (Peters, 1967).

Only those people can take on the passionate responsibilities of transforming children into good citizens who plan teaching as a career and are sufficiently prepared with teaching skills, which indicates the importance of development of adequate skills, dedication to teaching and a determination for continuous growth and learning (Arshad 1993, cited in Hussain, 2004). For that reason, it is required to ensure that children are developed and taught by highly committed professional teachers. Hence, earlier discussion establishes that teaching with commitment results in the children’s development in a creative manner for life-long learning.

Distant learning and regular morning and evening programme of teacher education are being offered by public and private sectors vocational training institutes and universities in Lahore. Hussain (2004) raises the point that teacher [education] is not the only factor that has to be obligatory for [in-service] and prospective teachers but also an aptitude towards teaching is an inevitable feature to look forward to. Due to a significant discrepancy in the curriculum and teaching methodology in both sectors, it would seem that such investigations are needed in order to reflect on in-service teachers’ perception of teaching as a profession in teachers of private sector in Lahore.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Mary Kelly, former chairperson of the Australian Teaching Council (ATC), an organization that systematically outlines the changing nature of teachers’ work and encourages recognition of that work both industrially and professionally, noted that:

‘Without our teachers and schools, there would be no process whereby … citizens could participate in a common experience based on common values.’

Kelly, 1996, p.1

Social Cohesion

Societies in Lahore have combinations of various interest groups with different beliefs and values and with different professional background, for instance, businessmen, government employees, workers and managers from private sector, engineers, doctors etc. Educational aims, therefore, are set to cater for education to the children of various social groups. The overall educational aim of an educational system is to equip young generation with problem-solving and critical thinking skills for their practical life to promote ‘Social Cohesion’ … to live together harmoniously and with self-respect (Winch & Gingell, 1999, p.222).

Schools of Thought

Education systems in Lahore have been emphasizing on quality education by engaging qualified personnel; however, Winch & Gingell (1999) believe that educational aim is not explicitly exposed to everyone. From overarching umbrella of academia, each education system has adopted a particular learning theory and designed its own curriculum. Though, for educators it remains contested that ‘Why to Teach?’, ‘What to Teach?’ and ‘How to Teach? Besides educational aim, teachers are [less] encouraged to have any orientation or aptitude to join teaching as a profession in private schools so they are considered just a replaceable item that may be retained in school until another suitable teacher joins (Singh and Rana, 2000, p.161-162).

Singh and Rana (2002) define a historic teacher who … explained the meaning of human existence … while a modern teacher is someone divine in human form. Research shows that a good teacher possesses knowledge, skills to communicate and understand, a positive attitude towards profession, personal competency to use abilities to produce a socially agreed upon result, and professional competencies (Singh and Rana, 2002, p. 4). The qualities of an effective teacher are a blend of attributes and pedagogical skills, which endorse quality learning in ordinary conditions (Boylan, Battersby, Wallac, & Retallick, 1991; Brookfield, 1995; Cullingford, 1995; Hill & Hawk, 1998; Ramsay & Oliver, 1994; and Ramsden, 1992 cited in McGee & Fraser, 2005). Personal traits of effective teachers include treating students with respect, being compassionate and confidential, having a sense of humour, acting in a just and fair manner and be friendly but firm (McGee & Fraser, 2005). Furthermore, it was believed that … childhood teaching required similar skills to those associated with child rearing [i.e. women’s work] (Groundwater-Smith, Ewing & Le Cornu, 2003, p. 41). They suggest that teachers’ work is to concern with patterns of behaviour in our society and their consequences for young [children, whether boys or girls]. In addition, consciousness of oneself, attentiveness to others, ability to communicate and collaborate with others, resourcefulness, openness to change, understanding of cultural dimensions, analytical ability of educational systems and their impact on learning milieu and sense of self-confidence (Melnick & Zeichner, 1998). Teachers will therefore be appreciated not only for their knowledge and purely technical skills but also for their personal qualities (Tedesco, 1996, p. 1). However, there are teachers who ‘make their life easier at the cost of others’ (Singh and Rana, 2002, p. 64-65).

Teaching means to make someone learn. The quality of learning is directly proportional to the quality of teaching. For quality learning, ‘each teacher must identify and voice his or her own vision … which will foster students’ growth (McGee & Fraser, 2005, p. 76-77). They also, suggest teachers to have well-defined learning goals … to make very precise decisions about the kinds of learning wanted and [to] share these goals with students. Busher and Saran (1995, P. 40) suggest that teacher has to ‘be available for work, for planning, delivery and performance. Moreover, the teacher’s role is changing from that of instructor to that of a leader of learning. Increasingly, the teacher is being asked to teach students how to learn, to solve problems, to analyse and so on, so as to become life-long learners (Kelly, 1996, p.1).

Occupation is trade, profession or type of work performed by an individual, independent of the worker’s industry, status or years of experience (Singh and Rana, 2002, p.148); in addition, they have pointed out two additional attributes of a profession – it is bound by its own declared ethics and supervised by its own people (p.65). A profession is a guild of practitioners … because they possess and are master of knowledge base that is sufficiently esoteric (Strike, 1993, p. 257). McGee & Fraser define the term ‘professional teacher’ as a teaching activity that is widely practised in the community (2005, p. 274)  however, [professional teacher] are publicly accredited to teach and fulfil public, rather than private, teaching functions (Goodlad, 1990 cited in McGee & Fraser, 2005, p. 274). Teachers are smartly replaced like other industries if [they] do not adjust to [a] much sharper view of the world … in the service industry (Ramsey, 2000, p. 12). Teaching in ‘education industry’ emphasising on ‘individual rights’ (McGee & Fraser, 2005, p. 277) of what Rishworth (1999, p. 4) states as ‘education law’. Downie (1990) suggests that the attitude of tuism [taking account of you] is an ideal characteristic of all the helping professions, including teaching (cited in McGee & Fraser, 2005, p. 277). In addition, teaching as ‘community of practice’, called as ‘guild’ by scholars in England (Lave and Wenger, 1991).

The role perception indicates how training influences a teacher’s profession as a whole, the difference that he finds before and after training to understand what his duty should be – only to teach, only to provide information, only to influence students or to do something beyond these activities (Singh and Rana, 2002, p.147). Government of Pakistan emphasises that if teachers are well-trained and highly motivated, learning will be enhanced (quoted in Hussain, 2004).

In addition, improvement of the profession of education lies in the hands of teacher education (Govt. of Pakistan, 1997 cited in Hussain, 2004). ‘Professionalism’ is regarded as benefiting the practitioners and ‘professionality’, a term coined to refer to professional activity aimed at benefiting students (Hoyle, 1975). Hoyle differentiates between extended professionality that leads to continuing professional development while restricted professionality has greater autonomy. Extended professionality is the basis for greater public confidence in teacher professionalism (Evans, 1997 and Sachs, 1997). INSET enlightens professional training as the received learning ‘delivered’ by experts through planned workshops and professional support as the received learning ‘acquired’ on the job from colleagues (Oldroyd and Hall, 1991). Teacher education is needed for developing a purpose and formulation of a positive attitude among prospective teachers for the profession (Aggarwal, 1993).

RESEARCH METHODLOGY

The subject of the research contained in-service teachers as teaching was best done by those who had high levels of literary attainment (Groundwater-Smith, Ewing & Le Cornu, 2003, p. 42). However, the proposed study did not require only the few highly literate professionals to include but also majority of the teachers  who were practising as classroom practitioners in the private sector of education as ‘target population’ (Best & Kahn, 2006, p. 13). In Lahore, there are networks of private schools to cater education for the children of different social groups. Such networks consist of trust school, business purpose schools, NGO’s school etc. The private school teachers were clustered according to different social groups i.e. teachers of the students from elite, upper middle, middle, and lower class. In Lahore, teachers of English medium private schools have been following different learning theories taken from over arching umbrella of academia.

The study required to collect data from a range of recently joined teachers to more experienced teachers from each of selected English medium private school ‘so that chance or the operation of probability is utilized’ (Best & Kahn, 2006, p. 13). Therefore, researcher selected sample teachers from those schools, which were nearby and easily approachable. Mainly, due to research on a small scale that required only thirty sample teachers, researcher could not include all private schools that qualified selection criteria of population.

Survey research consisted of questionnaires to obtain a quantitative data, like Johnson & Christensen (2000) states that [teachers] opinion polls are always survey (p. 277); as it requires less time, is less expensive, and permits collection of data from a much larger sample (p. 281).

Interviews would provide spontaneous responses of teachers and administrators about teachers’ recruitment, working conditions in schools, job satisfaction regarding appraisal and salary, job description and teachers’ performance indicators. By establishing a rapport and a trust relationship, the interviewer can often obtain data that respondents would not give on a questionnaire (Johnson & Christensen, 2000, p. 291).

The researcher used statistical measures between variables to develop generalization of the present scenario and prediction of future setting as statistical data describe group behaviour … abstracted from a number of individual observations (Best & Kahn, 2006, p. 354); although  they say that descriptive statistical analysis limits generalization (p. 355). Therefore, inferential analysis was used to get hold of the conclusion, as drawing conclusions about populations based on observation of sample is the purpose of inferential analysis (Best & Kahn, 2006, p. 356).

Findings and Discussions

The findings in the data show that respondents’ level of agreement with teaching is the best job rises after spending 5 years in teaching or due to financial growth approaching to Rs30000 or more. 76.6 % teachers of the sample size rank teaching is the best job for them who have 5 years or more experience however, 60 % respondents earn a maximum of Rs.39000. Figure 5.3 explains that 6.6 % female respondents with maximum income ranging from Rs.20000 – 29000 could not decide whether teaching is the best job for them. They might be agreed with the statement if salaried better. On the other hand, 10 % teachers taking in 6.6 % female and 3.3 % male respondents are inclined towards disagreed level of teaching is the best job due to a low-income profile ranging from Rs.10000 – 29000.

Fifty percent of the respondents who are female think during entire range of work experience that they could perform better in any other field of profession. It can be assumed that literate female might join teaching due to social and cultural boundaries set by the family heads. In addition, it can be hypothetical that teaching is considered the best activity by un-married female after completion of their studies. There are other motivational factors, which have been analysed through group interviews of the teachers.

Teachers of master level qualification with experience ranging from 6 – 15 years from both categories of gender depict mix behaviour with varied income range towards teaching is their last choice. Teachers during a period of 11 – 15 year are almost found totally inclined towards the test variable. The tangible reason might be joblessness but family pressure in case of female teachers cannot be rejected. With an extensive experience, female sample teachers with master and graduate level of qualification are moving towards the agreed end of continuum of the said statement. It explains that due to unavailability of the opportunities in other fields, literate people tend to move in the direction of teaching for a respectable earning. It may also be assumed that in private sector, educational institutes do not require pre-service teacher training or teacher education at the time of recruitment. Moreover, school administration replaces unsuccessful teachers when they get the right person. This dimension of teaching profession demands teachers to have not only a high literacy academic background but also teaching skills, mind-set and passion towards teaching profession.

It is also inferred from the data that the existence of other attitudes with which teachers come across while interacting with all stakeholders during a school day affect teachers’ morality that ultimately leave an effect on ranking teaching as a high status profession.

Comparison of different sub-areas of the research study with educational qualification – work experience – income / gender reveals that income is the dominant factor on which teaching is ranked by the sample teachers of the whole population. Teachers feel good and show a positive attitude towards different sub-areas of teaching as profession if they are paid enough to live an average standard of life.

Subsequent segment of analyses would have analyzed commitment towards teaching profession that explains the philosophy of teaching and teachers’ attitude with some other parameters.

43.3 % teachers of the sample size from both categories of gender earn the same respect from their students who follow the set of values and principles while interacting with their students because they believe school environment leaves a greater impact on students’ learning. On the other hand, 20 % respondent teachers do not earn the same respect from all of their students because they tend to deny following values and principles while interacting with students and point the finger at family environment regarding children’s learning. Therefore, it can be depicted that like other corporate business only those companies earn a good status in the market place which not only provide quality services to their consumers at a minimum cost but also follow the professional ethics set by the organization, teaching is required to set professional ethics and norms. And following those explicit norms and values tend to consider teaching as a corporate profession.

Mean value of sample teachers who plan differentiated lesson to make each student understand is 4.61 at St. Deviation 0.497 and the mean value of respondents who can earn better through home tuition is 3.27 at St. Deviation 1.413. Correlation shows that p value of significance is 0.004 which is less than 0.05 level of significance. So, there is no relation between planning differentiated lesson to make each student understand and earning better through home tuition. By comparing mean values it can be concluded that respondent teachers plan differentiated lesson to cater for whole class whether they can earn better through home tuition or not. This attitude of respondent teachers generalizes the fact that teachers’ job is make each student understand effectively in school by planning according to individual needs, which is a positive perspective of teaching profession; also, refers to catering for Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences (Gardner & Hatch, 1989).

Sample teachers strongly demand for updated subject knowledge and the ability to impart the knowledge effectively through well-planned and well-organized lesson in an innovative and creative way of teaching.

Respondent teachers believe that the moral values and principles can be efficiently induced into students by being punctual, regular, firm and friendly, kind, disciplined, sincere and sympathetic.

Teachers’ presentation features include well dressed, well groomed and interactive with good communication skills.

The facilitation of significant learning rests upon certain attitudinal qualities that exist in the personal relationshipbetween facilitator and learner (Rogers, 1990). The positive attitudes of teachers refer to cooperation, receptive to criticism, learned, willing to listen and to learn, well-behaved and showing patience.

The professional traits of teacher comprise of competence that enable teachers to use different teaching strategies while planning and implementing the lesson and manage their time and resources effectively. Being a reflective practitioner, teachers enable to evaluate their classroom practice critically for improvement, as reflection is not an end itself (Groundwater-Smith, Ewing & Le Cornu, 2003, p. 162).

Dedication, devotion, passionate and commitment refer to teachers’ faithfulness towards children’s development process as Rogers defines teacher be real and trustworthy persons with empathetic understanding (1990).

Respondents’ comments were added to open a room for further investigations considering teaching as a corporate profession in Lahore. The results explain respondent teachers’ demand for pre-service and in-service teacher training integrated with technology besides provision of opportunities to enhance qualification. They give an opinion that institution should also facilitate teachers enrolling themselves in professional development courses. They require management to be un-biased in promoting creative minded teachers which refers to a responsible role of administrator and advisory teacher regarding teachers’ professional growth along-with institutional expansion.

Sample teachers point out that teachers are ignorant of individual needs and do not bother about students’ personality but they work according to their salary. Conversely, some teachers respond that teachers are playing a positive role in building the characters of students and they should be paid well so they pay more attention to their profession. Behaviour shows that a professional and honest teacher remains hand to mouth. Such responses describe that teaching is a mean of respectable earning with social activities and community building upon which future of the nation rests. Like they quoted other business organizations, where professionals are paid according to their qualifications, training and experience, teachers must be paid enough well so that they may be able to put in their utmost effort, skills and potential to their core job sincerely. Regulation and skill formation of human capital through education and training, and schools and education system are key strategic sites from where the nation can achieve its social and economical priorities (Groundwater-Smith, Ewing & Le Cornu, 2003, p. 38-39).

Teachers perceive that teaching is high level profession at university level. They suggest to provide due respect to teachers in the society however, teachers’ respect is directly proportional to their personal and professional traits regardless of the salary earned as the analysis described in earlier discussion.

Another response demonstrates that the lack of coordination meetings with parents and students creates a gap between students’ needs and planning teaching strategies for improvement in students’ performance. If different perspectives are not clearly understood … children may be placed in the difficult situation of trying to reconcile (McGee & Fraser, 2005, p. 265-266).

Data from two groups of in-service teachers strengthens that married female teachers come into teaching to enjoy less working hours and they prefer to utilize day time in school with their children. It facilitates female teachers to avail free education of their children along with a satisfactory amount of financial support for their families. They make clear that teaching is a comparatively secure social activity than any other profession which allows them to build adolescents’ character. However, little behaviour shows that teachers work in creative manner according to their salary. They think that due to economic crisis, living a simple life turns out to be hard. Respondents explain that there is no other choice for literate female except teaching in order to support their families. As far as male teachers are concerned, they agree to become a teacher with no proper planning and call themselves ‘teachers by chance’ or ‘accidental teachers’.  However, they think that their children’s free education facility is the vital element that encourages them to continue teaching as a profession. In addition, respondents make a link of their financial enhancement through home tuition being subject specialists with the private practice of the specialist visiting doctors.

Teachers’ responses regarding working conditions and job satisfaction, when compare to their salary show mixed behaviour. Quite a good number of teachers claim that their salary does not match with the workload, they are assigned. They perceive that they can have better monetary benefits in the competitive educational environment of Lahore. However, some teachers respond in a fairly ethical manner of religion pertaining to satisfaction of their income. In addition, respondents think that the administration does not appreciate suggestions from the teaching staff and hardly shows readiness to modify current practices.

On the topic of pre-service and in-service teacher training and professional development, almost all of the teachers consider it as an essential domain of professional requirements. Their demand is to facilitate new induction through proper mentoring in order to assess their potential of dealing with different age groups (as it was established in chapter 1); and to make new induction clear about system’s requirements and its policies. They think that educational / subject refresher workshops and professional development courses must be an integral field of in-service teaching to make them learn new techniques of teaching and to upgrade their knowledge.

Teachers tend to favour pre-service training, which enables them to understand the variety of activities; they are supposed to do, while teaching. Moreover, respondents quote that a doctor goes through house-job period before practicing as a general practitioner and in order to construct a building; people study engineering of the relevant field, then in the same way teachers must attend pre-service training as they are contributing in building the nation. Sample teachers responses show that teachers might consider themselves successful even if they build personalities of a few students of the multitude. Although, an outlier does not support pre-service teacher training that underpins teachers’ perception, who consider that teaching as a profession requires only higher literacy attainments.

Few teachers point out that they are determined to enroll themselves in CPD activities but due to the restriction of signing bond for a particular time period with the system, they do not take initiative. Such attitude refers to restricted professionality, where teachers’ prospective CPD activities have a tendency to be affected by school policies.

Recommendations for In-Service Teachers

Researcher strongly felt during the entire study that because of the absence of prior planning, teachers who enter in the teaching profession by chance or accidentally are required to build up a professional attitude by acquiring essential skills of teaching through Continuing Professional Development (CPD) programmes.

Teachers are required to analyze their strengths being teachers, which enable them to prevail over their weaknesses through proper planning. They should explore such opportunities of acquiring professional skills, which in turn benefit them in teaching with different strategies to cater children of ‘multiple intelligences’ (Gardner & Hatch, 1989).

Instead of being pessimistic, they should develop an optimistic approach towards teaching as a profession since it demands to spend reasonably good time in planning diverse and creative lesson to cater for differentiated leaning abilities. A positive attitude would lead them to consider teaching as a high status profession.

Competent teachers should take initiatives in building a culture of sharing and working as team members to compensate their colleagues who have comparatively more work load. They should also encourage each other by celebrating individual teacher’s achievements and rewards in their free time.

Teachers, who are earning through home tuitions, are required to abide by the professional ethics in order to enhance morality of teaching profession.

Teachers should develop a positive stance while interacting with the management since management intention is to create a bridge between system’s policies and the teachers.

Recommendations for Management

To maintain quality teaching, intensive workshops should be conducted before beginning of the academic year for newly inducted teachers. In addition, a mentor teacher who is other than the school administrator should be assigned to train new induction for a complete term. Moreover, in order to reduce teachers’ turnover per annum, unbiased appraisal should be assured and monitored at each level of the management.  Furthermore, school management should justify teachers’ work load with them individually that would help bridging the gap between teachers and management.

Conclusion

The findings of the data revealed that giving consideration to teaching as a corporate profession is indispensable in the private sector of Lahore. It is observed by the fact that in-service teachers have selected teaching as their earning tool with no prior planning but they have been trying to become effective teachers with the existing situation to the best of their potential. Keeping in view that due to the un-availability of employment in various fields of profession in Lahore, literate people have adjusted themselves as dispensers of knowledge, thus helping themselves to secure employment followed by economic security which is their primary objective. On the other hand, despite the needs to formulate professional attitudes in in-service teachers, teachers need to know themselves as ‘nation builders’ as they are futurologists (Hodge, 1993, p. 148). Therefore, this research is useful not only for in-service teachers to take the ownership of building the nation by developing extended professionality. It also, offers direction to the management of private schools in Lahore in terms of providing a baseline for them to facilitate in-service teachers not only with teaching skills, strategies and methodologies but also creating a healthy and learning environment, better working conditions and revising their salaries to put up with economic instability. That will ultimately help stimulating teachers’ potential to their best. In the large interest of in-service teachers, they need to know their vision as nation builders. An assertive attitude with a blissful vision leads teachers to recognize the work; they have been doing as professionals.

References

Aggarwal, J. C. (1993). Landmarks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Ltd.

Alfrey, C. (2003). Understanding Children’s Learning. London: David Fulton Publishers Ltd.

Best, J. W. & Kahn, J. V. (2006). Research in Education (10th edition). India: Pearson Education & Dorling Kindersley. Pvt. Ltd.

Busher, H. and Saran, R. (1995). Managing Teachers as Professionals in School. Unknown: Kogan Page.

Downie, R. S. (1990). Professions and professionalism. Journal of Philosophy of education, 24(2), 147 – 159.

Evans, L. (1997). A voice crying in the wilderness? The problems and constraints facing ‘extended’ professionals in the English primary education sector. Teachers and teaching: Theory into practice, 3(1) , 61 – 83. Fullinwider. (1995).

Gardner, H. & Hatch, T. (1989). Multiple Intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences’, Educational Research.

Groundwater-Smith, S., Ewing, R. & Le Cornu, R. (2003). TEACHING: challenges and dilemmas (2nd edition). Australia: Thomson.

Hodge, B. (1993). Teaching as Communication. London: Longman.

Hoyle, E. (1975). Professionality, professionalism control in teaching. In V. Houghton, R. Mchugh, & c. Morgan (Eds.). Management in education: Organizations and individuals, (p. 413-320). London: Ward Lock Educational.

Hussain, S, (2004) EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHER TRAINING IN DEVELOPING PROFESSIONAL ATTITUDE OF PROSPECTIVE SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS. Thesis available online.

Johnson, B. & Christensen, L. (2000). EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, QUANTITATIVE AND QUALTATIVE APPROACHES. Boston (USA): Allyn and Bacon.

Kelly,M. 1996, ‘Teachers as Leaders of Learning’, Professional Exchange: Teachers talking to teachers, Queensland Board of Teacher Registration, Issue Fourteen, p. 1.

Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge. UK: Cambridge University Press.

McGee, C. & Fraser, D. (2005) The Professional Practice of Teaching 2nd edition. Australia: Thomson/Dunmore Press

Melnick, S. & Zeichner, K. (1998). ‘Teacher education’s responsibility to address diversity issues: Enhancing Institutional capacity’, Theory into Practice, 37(2).

Oldroyd, D. and Hall, V. (1991) Managing Staff Development. A Handbook for Secondary School. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.

Peters, R. S. (1967). ‘Authority’, in Quinton, A. (ed.) Oxford Reading in Political Philosophy.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ramsey, G. (2000). Quality Matters. Revitalizing teaching: Critical times, critical choices. Sydney: New South Wales Department of Education and Training.

Rishworth, P. (1999). The challenge of rights. NZ Education Review, 24 September, p. 5.

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Singh, R. P. and Rana, G. (2002) Teacher Education in Turmoil: Quest for a Solution. New Delhi: Sterling Publisher Pvt. Ltd.

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Winch, C. & Gingell, J. (1999). Key Concepts in The Philosophy of Education. London: Routledge.

History of Education, Teacher Training, Teaching, Teachers

A Concise History of Education of Teachers, of Teacher Training and Teaching

Western history of teacher training, education history, teaching theories, education of teachers, modern history od education, began in early 18th century Germany: teaching seminaries educating teachers were the first formal teacher training in Western history of education and teaching.

(History of education had 2nd century-BC Greek Spartan free public education, Athenian Academy until age 18 and higher Academy and Lyceum; Roman private formal schooling in tiers; China’s 1st century-BC administrator examinations; 1st century Jewish informal Cul’ Tura general education; Islam’s 9th century universities [madrasahs]; 16th century Aztec mandatory teen education; 18th century Russian nation-wide education, Poland’s Education Ministry, Chez ‘teacher of nations’ Comenius’s ‘Didactica Magna’ on universal education [compulsory, certified teachers, tests]; leading later Western history of education –17th century Scotland’s free education, 18th’s Norway’s mandatory literacy and  New Zealand’s standard education, 21st’s Europe’s Bologna process equalising educational qualifications.)

Teacher education and training, first teacher training college in French  history of education and history of teaching, Jean Babtiste de la Salle’s 18th century Brothers of the Christian schools, had non-clerical male teachers teaching poor and middle class children. Based on Greek philosophers’ philosophy of education and teaching, re-introduced by Islam, spirituality was not its only reason, basis of education. Teacher education and training had been clerical –this was Western history of education’s first secular teacher training college.

This philosophy of education changed educational history’s attitude to education. It reformed education, educational theory, learning, enabled further education reforms and educational theories of teaching in history of education. With education reforms in education history, educational theory of teacher education required of teachers an understanding of the human mind and the theory of education, knowledge of sciences and arts, principles and educational methods of teaching. This need in educational history for a teaching method, method of education, necessitated theories of education -in Western history of education educational theories on teacher education interested educators.

These educational philosophies and theories of education on teacher education became the norm in Western history of education, teacher training establishments first Normal Schools in the history of education and training of teachers.

Teacher education progressed educational history: in history of education and history of teaching the system of education required and enabled knowledge, in-service experience, certification for teachers, continuing professional development for teachers in teaching. This non-uniform system of teacher education and training enabled teachers, while teaching, at teacher seminars to refresh and increase their knowledge of theory of education and method of teaching -exchanging ideas among teachers.

Napoleon, in history of education and teacher training,  uniformed professional teaching. Adopting Germany’s teacher seminars, in French history of education and in Western history of education and training of teachers, established the first uniform teacher education system.

Neither the USA’s educational history nor British history of education did in educational philosophies, systems of education, include formal teacher education and training, although Elizabeth-I had introduced teachers’ moral teaching fitness certification in teacher education .

In England’s history of education and teaching, in early 19th century Joseph Lancaster and Andrew Bell founded the Lancastarian teaching method of teacher training: in a monitorial system of teacher education and training senior students (‘monitors’) receiving teaching from tutors were teaching junior students, acting as teachers.

In Scotland’s history of education and teaching, 17th century free education compulsory in late 19th, Germany’s teacher education and training influenced David Stowe’s founding the Glasgow Normal Seminary for teachers.

Progress in teaching and teacher training began with Horace Mann’s Massachusetts Normal Schools in the USA’s educational history, and in Britain’s history of education by the churches’ and voluntary organisations’ teacher training colleges and teaching the colonials.

In philosophies of education arguments followed on teacher education in educational history: should persons of lower English social class attend teacher training colleges and give teaching to children of higher social class!? Might teachers’ teaching not influence young French minds with liberal ideas?!

(Japan’s educational philosophy [perhaps influencing the USA’s educational philosophy, history of education and teaching] emphasised patriotic teacher education and teaching.)

In Europe’s history of teacher education and training, Rosencrantz’s 19th century ‘Philosophy of Education’ emphasised ‘philosophical and psychological data’; this, resembling Islam’s university faculties, developed into separate teaching disciplines.

In Sweden’s history of education and teaching, Pestalozzi furthered the progress of systems of education, advocating formal teacher training colleges.

(Pestalozzi, except theologically, was self-educated, did not leave a written account of teaching and of teacher training colleges; his place in the history of education and teaching is deducible in outline from his various writings, loving sincere deeds, the example he set.)

Germany’s Froebel, and Alexander Bain’s ‘Education as a Science’, favoured education of teachers through teacher training colleges; teacher education adopted what philosophies of education in Western educational history and teaching had lacked -Herbart’s pedagogical emphasis in teaching on five formal steps: preparation, presentation, comparison, generalisation, application.

Germany’s teacher education and training became the basis of developments in the history of education and teacher training; Derwent Coleridge and James Kay Shuttleworth in Britain, Mann in the USA broadly agreed: teacher education and training should emphasise techniques of teaching -“not only the subjects of instructions, but also the method of teaching”.

Jules Ferry laws’ compulsory education established teacher education and training in late 19th century French history of education: teacher education and training, by law, should be through formal teacher training colleges.

English speaking countries’ history of education and teaching, formal teacher education and training, began with the University of Edinburgh’s creating a chair in education, with St. Andrews; in the USA’s history of education, e.g., Henry Bernard, Nicholas Murray Butler, followed.

In Western history of education, England’s progress involved pedagogy and Herbart Sepencer’s teaching techniques in teacher education and training, the USA’s e.g., Francis W. Parker’s, studying Germany’s pedagogical teacher education developments.

In the USA’s history of education and teaching the Darwinian hypothesis (as before later scientific evaluation) influenced John Dewey at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools; taking into account from other disciplines what were considered relevant in teaching to child development, the religiously affiliated Brown University founded an education department.

(The La Salle College in Philadelphia, had been teaching education.)

New York’s Teachers College, founded 1888, was incorporated into the Columbia University, 1893, establishing its teacher training college, announcing: “The purpose of the Teacher Training College is to afford opportunity, both theoretical and practical, for the training of teachers, of both sexes, for kindergartens and elementary schools and secondary schools, of principals, supervisors, and superintendents of schools, and of specialists in various branches of school work, involving normal schools and colleges” -it became the basis, in Western history of education and teaching, of teacher education and training and Teacher Colleges.

(The USA’s educational history experts’ versions vary on it history of education.) 

In most of British Commonwealth’s history of education and system of teacher training, entry into teacher training came to require senior secondary education at High School level or British Grammar School education with national Matriculation or Ordinary and Advanced General Certificate of Education (GCE) examinations –or equivalent.

In Europe’s history of education and teacher training, education with similar Gymnasium(/Abitur)  or General Lycè e Diploma, or equivalent education, became professional teacher education and training entry qualification.

(In British history of education, until early 20th century, holders of those qualifications, by selection examination, could become temporary teachers. Oxbridge graduates could register ‘master’ and be syndicated teachers. Other universities’ graduates, to become teachers, attended teacher training colleges [if Bachelor of Education, second year teacher training of a teacher training college].)

In British Commonwealth’s history of education greater importance was attached to professionalism in teacher education and training: academic qualifications did not suffice for teaching; teacher examinations required specific periods of specifically professional study in teaching. Professional teaching involved two years’ professional study in teaching and additional in-house teacher training before professional teacher status. Professional teachers could, with another educational year at the teacher training college, specialise in a subject, e.g., geography or history (in farming colonies, e.g., Cyprus where Agriculture became a secondary school examination subject,  with one or two more educational years’ through the Teacher Training College’s Rural Agricultural School). Science graduates without professional teaching training and education qualified for permanent teaching after a year’s classroom teaching experience approved by professionally qualified headmasters, as teachers of their subjects. Teachers were expected to attend teachers’ seminars as continuing professional development.

While professional qualifications are regarded for professional reasons equivalent to doctorates in their counterparts and what qualify for teaching, teacher education and training (school age becoming lower and years less, to enable maturer teachers and teaching), for professional teaching knowledge and skills acquired at teacher training colleges, favoured bachelor degrees with teaching content emphasising skills over theory and, e.g., the USA’s academic ‘first professional degree’ –more for research than professional practice.

(British history of education desired teaching with Post-graduate Certificate in Education [PGCE] -for English state school teaching Qualified Teacher Status [QTS] skills test, and [also if Bachelor of Education] successfully completing an induction year [in Scotland two] in school teaching as Newly Qualified Teacher [NQT], with continuing professional development; alternatively a specific teaching degree or on-the-job teacher training. Teachers trained at Teacher Training Colleges in [former] colonies –and similarly trained teachers with GCSE [grade C] or equivalent in English and Mathematics [for primary school teaching, also Physics] enjoy Qualified Teacher Status.)

(Canada’s provinces or schools certify teachers; Australia requires none for federally funded private schools; France’s is college/bachelor and Teacher Institute [master’s -2010].)

{In the USA’s history of education, until 1960s, one year’s teacher training college education was required for teacher certification. In 1984 an alternate teaching route was introduced: bachelor’s with teaching preparation and within a specified number of years completing a teaching or content based master’s. (Some universities award [with summer study] bachelor degrees in two years, some two bachelor degrees simultaneously [e.g., with two arts and two science majors both BA Philosophy and BS ChE Chemical Engineering]; the  doctoral JD is pre-requisite to master’s LL.M which not all tenured professors need posses.) The ‘Master of Professional Studies’ (MPS) First Professional Degree is academic, not professional. Many states require of teachers, for permanent teaching, examinations in pedagogy and a content area or general knowledge accredited by many private associations’ varying standards; in early 21st century Marlboro-Carolina 20% of teachers had no certification.}

In educational history post general education having been academic for career advancement and scholarly activity or research, or professional for actual practice in the filed, the professional qualification is normally the terminating qualification; in professional teaching, advanced professional degrees enabling specialised teaching, e.g., at universities, are not regarded as part of professional teacher education and training for general education teaching; the USA’s main master’s area is for Ed.D or Ph.D. –research.)

In European history of education, teaching related educational leadership gained importance at the end of 20th century. Desiring the benefits of learnable leadership skills and inherent personal leadership qualities, teachers’ educational leadership skills in teaching leadership are remunerated according to national teacher pay scales.

The USA’s educational leadership teachers’ pay is non-uniform; educational leadership skills standards vary. Graduate educational leadership programs are in, e.g., community issues and educational law. Private Teacher Advancement Programmes (TAP) subscribed by some schools encourage teachers in administrative or teaching development: a teacher prepares an individual growth plan (IGP) with an educational goal or teaching activity, or a cluster group of teachers identify a student learning need, becoming ‘mentor’ or ‘master teacher’/‘teacher of teachers’.

As others’, USA’s teacher training colleges’ comparable teaching qualifications enjoy international regard.

In their history of education, having less aspired to ‘practical’ general education as in the USA and 21st century Britain, most British Commonwealth and European teaching institutions almost uniformly value widely academic general education as culture not acquirable in post general education (e.g., an opposition leader to a Prime Minister [both lawyers] “I as a Grammar School boy” [would not take ‘that’ from him who was not]) and Britain’s suggestion to equate practical skills certificates with general academic qualifications was criticised.

(Early 21st century British educational history saw [university or equivalent  mandatory student grants becoming loans, unemployment necessitating longer and more courses, foreigners scoring higher in English] no increase since late 20th in literacy.)

(In the USA’s history of education, with 20% adult functional illiteracy, as the educationists’ concerns grew, the educationalists considered Europe’s baccalaureate system of education; with growing public interest in education, at the end of 20th century a state appointed three generals to improve the standards of teaching and education and at the beginning of 21st century a general was appointed to federally improve teaching and educational standards.)

In educational history interest in the teaching profession has been based on the status of teachers. Regard for teachers in late 20th century was highest in Russia where teachers enjoyed better employment terms than elsewhere.

(In Britain’s history of education, 1980s’ miss-projection of numbers of teachers needed necessitated engaging science graduates without teaching qualifications as teachers; but a status was enjoyed by teachers of regard as in Europe, and, about the end of 20th century, knighthood for long serving teachers was suggested –due to controversy over peerages it did not materialise. At the beginning of 21st century reducing undergraduate degrees to two years with vocational content was considered, with master’s for teachers -also non-major professional qualifications being above undergraduate degrees in National Vocational Qualifications; but Teachers’ status was regarded to have been equated for economical reasons to classroom assistants’ socially criticised for taking classes without professional teacher education and training.])

In the USA’s history of education, teaching has hailed a form of essentialism in education, with a culture of practicality and model citizenry, emphasising respect for authority (advocated also for 21st century British education); with no general minimum standard in teacher training and education, some states not recognising the teaching qualifications of some others, teachers and teaching appear officially to enjoy no higher regard then Bernard Shaw’s remark (about writers) “Those who can, do; those who can not, teach”.

(In the USA, e.g., some teachers paid only term time having to seek vacation work, teaching and teachers generally are regarded to have enjoyed less good terms and conditions than elsewhere in proportion to social regard and public resources.)

The growth of interest in culture and education in Western history of teaching has been seen in the European Union, e.g., in Cyprus with the popularisation of education in mid. 20th century -reportedly with highest percentage of university graduates by 21st.

In Western educational reforms spiritual values in education are protected by teaching religious studies in schools in American secularism (protection of religion from political influence) and by the religious affiliations of many universities; in European secularism (protecting against one’s formal dominance of the other), often with a state religion enshrined in the constitution, this is ensured by, e.g., Britain’s Education Acts’ requirement in compulsory education of religious worship by pupils at least once a month and, while British universities are not formally religiously affiliated, the availability of  chapels and chaplains to students at universities.

While preferences in education (e.g., the pedagogy based Steiner-Waldorf education for creating free moral and integrated individuals -its teachers’ and schools’ say on defining the curricula by some disagreed with, or Montessori’s pre-school and elementary school child’s self directed activities with auto-didactic equipment -regarded by some as risking raising obedient automatons), and  emphasis (be it practical skills or Emerson’s ‘thinking man’), have all had praise and criticism in the history of education and teaching and arguments continue on pragmatism and creation -v- evolution, generally Socrates’s argument that the rightly trained mind turns toward virtue carries weight in most educational systems. Basically, in every history of education, an important aim of education and the societies’ all time expectations have been on the lines of these verses (by the Cypriot teacher, the late Orhan Seyfi Ari):

” ‘I was an ape’ you say -or amphibian?
And now?! Are you not now.. ‘man’!? ”

The cultural values balance have been more reflected in the education and training of teachers in Western history of education and teaching and the status of teachers in Europe mostly in Spain, Italy and France where, without much disregard to spiritual values, school teachers’ political and ideological affiliations have been the norm in professional teaching.

The web site may interest on teacher the late Orhan Seyfi Ari at orhanseyfiari.com

Accredited K-12 Homeschooling

Whether you look at online learning from the aspect of cost, convenience or even feasibility, it scores over traditional schooling on all counts. That is exactly what makes online home schooling such a great option for students and parents as well. They have the flexibility they require and also have access to a perfectly economical alternative that caters to their educational needs as well. More than just being cost effective, online home schooling also offers students many more options in terms of courses and electives they can opt for. Traditional schooling systems, however, have certain limitations concerning these areas and tend to throw up a lot more obstacles rather than offer viable solutions. Given the current circumstances, it only seems logical that alternative solutions that work need to be implemented at the earliest.

Online K-12 courses offer students a number of options to choose from. The greatest thing about being able to access your coursework online is that you can do it from practically anywhere and at any time. All you need to do is get your hands on a computer that has access to the Internet. Completion and submission of coursework too, can be done completely online, which certainly makes things a whole lot easier. This definitely offers a more comprehensive solution to address the urgent need for development of skills across the country. Moreover, getting your high school diploma from an accredited online high school in the country will certainly boost your chances of employment. Here are just a few reasons why you should think about earning your high school diploma from an accredited online school like Forest Trail Academy.

For starters, we’re one of the renowned accredited online high schools in the country. Forest Trail Academy is fully accredited and is registered with the Florida Department of Education. Moreover, our school is regionally accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges & Schools Council on Accreditation and School Improvement (SACS CASI), and is also nationally accredited and a member of National Association of Private & Home Schools (N.A.P.H.S.). Our student testimonials are evidence enough of the quality of education we offer your children and the success rates we’ve witnessed over the past years. We provide our students with a full curriculum that has been aligned and articulated to the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards.

But that’s not all. In addition to  courses, we also offer you courses for middle school and elementary school as well. We’re also the first online school in the country to have launched an online demo facility that allows you a preview of what it’s like to study in an online environment. If you’d like to know more about us or how to earn your high school diploma online, feel free to get in touch with us at www.foresttrailacademy.com. We look forward to welcoming you into our family at Forest Trail Academy!

Top Ten Colleges That Accept CAT Scores in India

The Common Admission Test (CAT) is an all-India test conducted by the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) as an entrance exam for admission to the Post-graduate and Fellow Programs in management courses of several management institutes all over India including the IIMs.There are more than a hundred B-schools in India, which accept Common Admission Test or CAT scores.

Here Collegedekho.com brings you the chosen list of top institutes, which accept CAT scores to materialize the selection process of the candidates during admission:

1. The Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

The Indian Institute of Technology, in Kanpur (or ‘IITK’), works in the form of a public research college, and it has been declared as an ‘Institute of National Importance’ by the Government of India, under IIT Act. This institute was established in 1959 by the Government of India, ad was funded by MHRD. Basically, the institute has been established to provide leadership in technological innovations and accelerate the growth and development of the country as a whole.

2. National Institute of Technology

The National Institutes of Technology (NITs) is actually a group of engineering colleges in India. These institutes have been declared by Act of Parliament as institutions of national importance. Earlier referred to as Regional Engineering Colleges (i.e. RECs), their respective state governments governed them. The NITs were founded here with an aim of promoting multi-cultural understanding, as well as regional diversity. Each major city in India has one of these thirty autonomous institutes.

3. Faculty of Management Studies, Delhi University

The Faculty of Management Studies (or FMS, New Delhi), was established in the year 1954, The Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi is recognized by the All India Council for Technical Education as one of the four centers for imparting management education in India. It offers management edification to the professional managers. This is in the form of both, full-time, and part-time MBA programs. The institute is among the oldest business schools in this country.

4. Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru

The Indian Institute of Science (IISc) was founded in the year 1909 because of joint efforts of the Maharaja of Mysore, and the then Government of India, Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata. In 1886, it was Jamsetji Tata who conceived of a university of science, which will work in benefiting India. Finally, the Government of India in consultation with scientists in India, and England, decided to locate the Institute in Bengaluru. It was in 1909 that the institute was formally vested. In fact, the foundation stone was laid in 1911, and then started the first batch of aspirants in that year itself.

5. MIT School of Business (MITSOB), Pune

The MIT School of Business is located in Pune and aims at attracting aspirants who apart from being studious, are, are also good team players. They are expected to be excellent in extra-curricular activities, and they respond to teaching methods in a more positive way. There is a firm belief that that a well rounded individual is very much crucial when it comes to gaining success in a highly competitive corporate environment.

6. International Management Institute, New Delhi

The International Management Institute (IMI, New Delhi), is a private B-school established in 1981. In fact, it was also the first corporate sponsored business school in India. Dr. Bakul Harshadrai Dholakia (who was former Director General of IIM Ahmedabad) is the current Director General of the IMI, New Delhi. It is one of the seven B-schools in India to get accreditation from the international accreditation agency, Association of MBAs (AMBA). There are campuses located in Bhubaneshwar, and Kolkata too. The b-school publishes an international business journal by the name of ‘Global Business Review’, with Sage Publications.

7. Amrita University (Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu)

The Amrita School of Business offers a residential two-year MBA degree program. There is also a dual degree program leading to an MS in Information Technology and MBA. This is in collaboration with State University of New York at Buffalo, for working professionals at the Bangalore campus. The faculty members have degrees from B.A’s, B.B.A’s and many reputed foreign universities. The ‘Outlook’ (magazine) ranked it at 27th amongst the Business Schools in India.

8. Institute of Finance and International Management, Bengaluru

The Institute of Finance and International Management (or IFIM) is a business school founded in 1995 and located in Bengaluru, which is popularly called the ‘Silicon Valley of India’. The institute is located in one of India’s largest industrial parks, i.e. The Electronic City. The institute is promoted by the ‘Dalal Street Investment Journal Group’, and it is an AICTE approved institution, with an ISO 9001:2008 certification. IFIM is also a member of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB). It is currently pursuing accreditation from AACSB.

9. Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, NOIDA

The Jaypee Institute of Information Technology which is also known as ‘JIIT Noida’ is a deemed university providing higher education under Section 3 of the UGC Act 1956. It has 6 academic departments and offers programs in technical education at undergraduate, postgraduate and doctorate level. The institute is located in Noida, Gautam Buddh Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh. It was established in 2001.

10. Shri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara Institute for Management Development (SDMIMD), Mysore

The ‘SDMIMD’ institute is supported by the Shree Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Educational Trust, which has a rich experience in managing educational institutes of repute for more than 42 years. Also, it is among the leading institutions of 40 educational establishments that are promoted by this Trust. It covers realms like Medical, Engineering, Dental, Law and Management Sciences.

Professional Development for Multicultural Education

Teachers are faced with many challenges in the classroom. Starting with the pressure to develop challenging exams and grade papers on time to the time deadlines of creating their lesson plans, the job seems to be never ending. However, teachers are also faced with accomplishing their main job role of a superior communicator to the students in the classroom. Unless they communicate in an exceptional manner, their students will never be able to learn correctly. Teachers working in multicultural education face an additional dilemma as they must now enhance their communication skills because of both cultural and language barriers in the classroom.

Before entering the multicultural education environment, there are a few things that teachers must do to prepare. Educators must first familiarize themselves with the cultural differences of all students who attend the school in which they teach. The best way for the teacher to bond with the students is to share a common interest or have a way in which to initiate conversation. Therefore, the teacher should be aware of the cultural uniqueness of each and every student. Showing a liking to individual students is a way in which to gain trust and form bonds.

Additionally, the teacher must decide how they can improve their current teaching strategy. They do not want to alter it too drastically because that will confuse the students, but at the same time there is always room for change. Teachers can ask their students for suggestions as to how they can improve their performance in the classroom. Together, the teacher and students will make the learning process much more effective and efficient.

How does one go about this process? Well, there are three approaches to teacher professional development. The first is individual research to enhance their knowledge base about multicultural education. During this process, the teacher should recognize the demographic of the area in which they teach. For example, if his or her class consists of many Hispanic students, the teacher may familiarize him or herself with traditions of that culture or learn how to speak some basic Spanish vocabulary.

The second approach is to attend lectures on specific topics related to teacher professional development. Multi-racial awareness activities will expose teachers to the different learning styles that their students portray. Research has shown that cultural groups learn in unique ways due to their history and values. Additionally, teachers will learn the reasons for the cultural differences, which root back to philosophy and social customs. Teaching strategies, such as role-playing and simulations, may help some students learn better as opposed to the ordinarily used lecture style of teaching. Once the teacher decides on the most effective strategy, he or she will notice success in their overall student performance and will feel rewarded.

Lastly, teachers learn through their own experience. This allows the teacher to learn about multicultural education firsthand by combining classroom-based learning with field-based experience. Once in the classroom interacting with the students, the teacher will be able to observe the different learning styles of the students and will be able to better plan for the future. Teachers should not be afraid to implement a unique teaching style because it may succeed in the multicultural environment.

Teacher professional development must comprise resources and ideas for teachers to use in allowing themselves to learn about cultural diversity. After completing the development process, teachers will have broadened their instructive knowledge, improve their skill set, and alter their beliefs, attitudes and understanding of working with a diverse variety of students. Although the task may be daunting, the overall outcome is beneficial and will make the teacher a successful communicator.

Nos Censuimos Igitur Essemus (We Thought Therefore We Were)

Nos Censuimus Igitur Essemus

In this great nation, it begins and ends with “We, the people.”

Kevin J. Quail, II

 Introduction

As an actively involved participant and committed investor in the United States public education system, I have witnessed the vitriolic invective and fallacious rhetoric of pundits, politicians, protestors, and “reformers” on the deleterious state of the standard American classroom. As an educator and scholar for the better part of a decade, I have finally reached my wits end and refuse to sit and rage or fume quietly while we ignore the true, the real, the actual problem we refuse to acknowledge and subject to obloquy because too many have the noble notion that our societal salvation can only be achieved through political correctness and positive affirmations. Such blind and baseless dedication to protecting people from hurt feelings has greatly diminished the once matchless intellectual prowess and reputation of American scholarship.  This being said, I posit that the primary saboteur of American public education is, unquestionably, the American public.

The principle problem is that the American public is woefully uninformed. The founding fathers of this great nation made no mention and laid no groundwork for the establishment of a compulsory, publicly funded system of education for all citizens. The Federal government—Congress, the Supreme Court, and the President of the United States—cannot ever hope to produce anything more than ephemeral changes with regard to our public schools simply because they lack the power to do so. The responsibility falls to the states under what is constitutionally known as “states’ rights.” Of course this in no way implies that the discussions never took place.

The Colonial Era

According to historical evidence, many of the founding fathers were actually emphatic in their belief that education is, in the words of S. Alexander Rippa in the fifth edition of the text entitled Education in a Free Society (1984), “a public responsibility of the federal government, a bulwark of freedom and security” (p. 67). Our first President, George Washington, in his Farewell Address to Congress, averred that the advancement of education was crucial for the “national welfare.” Ironically, the concept was championed by none more than the same founding father one of the great states of our nation wished to remove from the founder’s list in social studies textbooks because of his coinage of the phrase “separation of church and state.”

No founder fought harder and longer to establish some form of state-funded system of education for American children than Thomas Jefferson. He proposed multiple plans to the state legislature of Virginia, all of which suffered sound defeat “…undoubtedly caused by the refusal of well-to-do citizens to pay taxes for the education of the poor” (p. 70). He encountered the same classist issues confronted by his colleague and contemporary, Benjamin Franklin. Franklin’s and Jeffersons’ efforts to found and fund grammar schools supported by the taxpayers for the education of all children regardless of class (at that time this of course meant white males) ultimately led to the foundation of the first successful public schools not being what we would consider grammar or secondary institutions, but post-secondary colleges and universities: the University of Pennsylvania in 1755 and the University of Virginia in 1825. Intriguingly, colleges are often considered, and at this time this sentiment was a definitive fact, to be elitist.  Many people are convinced that these institutions further perpetrate the aspects of the economic caste system that limit the upward mobility of lower class citizens. Is it a coincidence that the first successful publicly funded academic institutions were bastions of higher academia and not grammar or secondary schools? Is our interest not even slightly piqued that the first American public schools embodied and formed the crux of the very values we decry as part of the problems in public education today?

The Modern Era

Let us continue on our brief journey through time and we learn that the following influential period of American growth and prosperity was the Antebellum and subsequent periods comprising the Industrial and Progressive Ages. Aside from propelling American industry and economy to unparalleled heights, it also demanded the need for a large and inexpensive (to increase profits for shareholders) labor force that could be easily exploited but not make too much of a fuss (probably due in part to the fact that, at least on paper, slavery would be, and was, abolished). In the mid to late 1800s through the 1940s, the seemingly eternal influx of immigrants began to inflict as many social issues as it offered economic gain.

Major issues that affected the educational sphere arose when the social reformers of the late 1800s bared their teeth and pushed for the revision of child labor laws. This put a substantially high number of immigrants’ children out of work and, essentially, on the streets during normal business hours. In an arguably small amount of time, densely populated areas began to experience the societal ills that accompany a growing population of idle children and teenagers. The political response was the gradual passage and enforcement of state compulsory education laws requiring minors of school age to attend public schools. Institutions intricately designed to develop and prepare students for higher scholarship were, almost overnight it may have seemed to some, inundated with a crippling volume of children and adolescents whose aspirations and goals may or may not include rigorous academic pursuit. This spurned a reconceptualization of the purpose of public schools. The primary objective transitioned from “the education of republican ideals and democratic principles” to the “Americanization” of all citizens. Again, was there ever a time we the people made a true effort to ensure that all students had the opportunity to attain a collegiate education that took precedence over maintenance of the status quo?

The Post-Modern Era

By 1950, every state in the Union at that time had imposed, and was vigorously enforcing, compulsory education laws along with methodologies for funding their public schools with taxpayer dollars. In the time between 1850 and 1950 (a short but eventful century), America had endured Civil War, Reconstruction, WWI, the Suffragette Movement, Herbert Hoover, the Great Depression, and WWII along with the realization of manifest destiny (the informal doctrine that enumerated the belief that the United States was destined to stretched from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific coast). We may have been knee deep in the Cold War, but we knew we really had nothing to fear because we were enriching uranium and building a nuclear arsenal so vast that for the next few centuries we will be armed to the teeth (despite the “Red Scare,” which was probably politically motivated to limit civil liberties because the government was scared of being overrun by the communists availing themselves of the democratic process. But we digress.). By the middle of the 20th Century, the United States had emerged as the leader of the free world. We were, arguably, “the greatest country in the world.” Or were we?

At the same time we were becoming a major power broker on the world stage, our domestic social policy was still being held hostage by the Plessy v. Ferguson doctrine of “separate but equal.” While young Americans were abroad fighting and dying for the world to be free, domestically an entire subset of our population was legally required, via de jure (legal) segregation, to sit in the rear of buses, enter homes and hotels through the kitchens, work for asinine wages, and then pay taxes without the ability to exercise the right to vote! (Can someone say “taxation without representation?” Did we not revolt against the British Empire for this exact type of tyranny?) Likewise, this same social caste was expected to attend sub-standard schools with sub-standard materials and teachers who may or may not have attained proper teacher education and training. Perhaps the meaning of the word “equal” has been misconstrued, but these circumstances indicate, with certainty, that our educational system (not to mention society) at that time was most assuredly not.

Nevertheless, and despite the many obstacles in their way, this caste spoke out. They found the right advocates and appropriate poster-children to mount a decent enough counterstrike concluding with the reversal of “separate but equal” in 1954 by theSupreme Court’s Brown v. Board of Education decision. In the majority opinion, Chief Justice Warren states that segregating children “from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone.” The Court also ordered that every publicly funded school in America serve all students regardless of race, class, or gender, and, at that time, to do so “with all deliberate speed.” But:

the federal courts did not simply say what states and educational officials could not do in the struggle for equality of opportunity; they moved actively and positively to tell officials and school boards what they must do to eliminate discrimination in school systems and promote equality of educational opportunity. States and school boards were ordered to take ‘affirmative action’ against segregation and prejudice (Rippa, 1984).

Also, the passage of “the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Title IX of the education amendments of 1972 [which went into effect in 1975] specifically applied to affirmative action to benefit women” and  specifically ordered that: “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance” (Rippa, 1984 pp. 277, 280). We can conclude, therefore, that among Blacks and other non-majority ethnic groups, women were also a minority being shafted by our educational and social system. However, these judicial actions came with a price-tag that no one could have foreseen we would still be paying for more than seven decades later. Civil Rights has proved to be a double-edged sword and yet another nail in the coffin of our public educational system; not because of the policies themselves, but their implementation.

As previously stated, the Supreme Court ordered public schools to make all of the aforementioned changes “with all deliberate speed.” The problem with legalese is that it tends to be vexingly literal and ambiguous. Consequently, with reference to Brown, states were able to interpret the phrase almost unilaterally as long as the perception was that the policies were being implemented. Combining the study of history with eyewitness accounts, the upset to the status quo prompted a societal backlash that we are still paying for today.

To start: many majority parents (who could afford it) removed their children from the public schools, pooled their resources, and created private institutions where they could continue to educate their children without the pressures of liberal legislation that would force them to integrate. In some locales, like Prince Edward County in Virginia, the local officials, predominantly comprised of majority citizens, shut down their public school system altogether. Apparently, so many districts took up this practice that in 1968 the Court required all of those that followed suit to reopen their public schools and develop “workable” desegregation plans. The Court then went even further to decree that federal judges could order schools to integrate their staff (Rippa, 1984). To boot, the Court upheld the Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg (1971) decision to support the practice of busing. Busing was a

remedial plan [that] required a massive, long-distance transportation program: students residing closest to inner-city schools were to be assigned to suburban schools; students residing closest to suburban schools were to be assigned to inner-city schools. Thus the neighborhood school concept, a principle argument against busing, was substantially weakened by the Court decree. Although the United States Supreme Court did not outlaw ‘schools all or predominantly of one race in a district of mixed population,’ it did create conditions that would make such schools difficult to maintain (p. 283).

As an added blow, many of the qualified majority teachers, who deigned to teach students they did not deem worthy or capable of higher scholarship, found positions elsewhere. The quick fix was to fill the vacated teaching positions with majority teachers who may not be as qualified but were willing to teach in an integrated classroom. Likewise, they system mostly hired minority teachers who would not rock the boat or make too much noise about unjust business practices (also not usually the crème de la crème in their field). Consequence: a substantial number of vacated teaching positions with those remaining being less likely the best in their field and classrooms filled, and later overfilled, with students of a certain income bracket with the prejudices and etiquette to match.

So, over two decades, our efforts to speedily build a more inclusive society, we instituted protocols that filled the public schools with: (a) Untrained and under-qualified teachers, many of whom would refuse to collaborate with one another because they were relegated to work in the same schools aside colleagues against whom they were prejudiced, (b) Large, diverse classrooms filled with a number of angered majority students with deep prejudices for many of their classmates fostered by their parents (many of whom were also highly displeased with the upset to the status quo and the transition to a new social order) and chronically stressed minority students trying to get a substantive education equal to that of their majority counterparts with no other options, and (c) Highly disgruntled administrators and districts who believed the federal courts robbed them of their rights to operate their own schools the way they saw fit. Then we placed all of these people under one roof and expected them to attain and maintain the same level of academic rigor before the shifts. Selah.

Forgotten by most, but at this same time our society was also caught up in the Deinstitutionalization Movement. This social movement was emptying mental hospitals and institutions en mass. This action, coupled with the nascent but ironclad civil rights legislation, would eventually require public schools to fully include students with “handicaps” in the already disturbed school environment. It would also require schools to develop academic programs that appropriately met these students’ needs. Noble and morally just? Of course. Should this have happened? Absolutely. The problem, again, was timing and implementation.

Chris Koyanagi prepared a report entitled “Learning From History: Deinstitutionalization of People with Mental Illness As Precursor to Long-Term Care Reform” for the Kaiser Foundation in 2007 where he explores the history of deinstitutionalization to explain how we can learn from our mistakes. (To reiterate: mistakes.) He notes that initially “the early focus was on moving individuals out of state public mental hospitals and from 1955 to 1980, the resident population in those facilities fell from 559,000 to 154,000.” That means at least 405,000 known mental patients were suddenly on the streets; and that is just on paper. While that difference may seem trifling, being that many of these types of institutions are localized in densely populated urban areas, the impact was not. Koyanagi goes on to say that, “only later was there a focus on improving and expanding the range of services and supports for those now in the community, in recognition that medical treatment was insufficient to ensure community tenure” (p. 1). Without knowing the exact statistics on the number of patients released who were of school age, suffice it to say that the number was significant enough for Congress to enact the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975 (now known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, reauthorized in 2004).

Let it be said that the other social reform movements occurring concurrently were not the driving force for this movement. Koyanagi explains that “governors and state legislatures were strongly motivated by cost concerns…” Historically, when money management is a factor, reforms happen quickly, sloppily, and with little concern for future consequences. “Yet Deinstitutionalization initially progressed very slowly. …It only accelerated into a full-scale, nationwide policy in the late 1960s and 1970s, when the federal government became involved” (p. 4). It got involved mostly in response to the report entitled Action for Mental Health commissioned by the Joint Commission on Mental Health. However, one could also argue that the feds became involved because they were already dealing with an existing public outcry over civil rights and wanted to avoid angering another sect of the population (and given the time that would not be a real stretch).

Logically, one can deduce that this sudden influx of students with emotional and intellectual disorders and disabilities put further pressure on the public schools. They had just been ordered to ensure that all students receive a free appropriate public education (FAPE) and this now included students with disabilities. Noble? Yes. But, we must consider that at the same time they were dealing with the social pressures of racism and sexism, teachers and students, already reeling with a severe case of culture shock, were yet again charged to deal with another extreme upset to the status quo absent desperately needed resources and training.

As these radical social movements, and consequent social tensions, raged on in the 1960s and 1970s, unforeseen obstacles to the effectual administration of public education emerged. Educationally focused sociological and psychological research took the country by storm as we began to realize that the quality of our public schools was quickly plummeting. As such, many schools began to implement programs and practices with novel ideas and rhetoric like “multicultural,” “whole language,” and “constructivist.” The damage of this type of rhetoric will be discussed later as the consequences of its adoption would not be realized until generations later.

Now enter the deleterious effects of technology: In the 1970s and 1980s, there were many books and articles written decrying the effects of widespread access to recreational and time-saving popular technology—television, microwave, radio, walkman, etc.—on children (and, by extension, the classroom). The issues enumerated are almost verbatim what teachers complain about today. These decades developed the progenitors of the subsequent “popcorn” generations.

The progeny of these progenitors have become increasingly more loathsome and slothful with each decade as they become more and more accustomed to the fast food lifestyle—quick, cheap, and convenient. People who become accustomed to this type of lifestyle also tend to develop an extremely low tolerance for sacrifice and hard work and an increased dependence on instant gratification and learned helplessness. Now, imagine having thirty to forty of intellectually lethargic students in a classroom. Then imagine having to be accountable for the substance and quality of their work. Then imagine that if these students refuse to work or act out to avoid work (and they do so regularly) and you dare to even imply that the student is ill-equipped or just plain lazy reprimand, you, the teacher, are reprimanded. Why? Because the public has decided that personal accountability for one’s own education is no longer a reasonable request of students because personal accountability requires sacrifice and hard work.

Astoundingly, as if the complete and utter degradation of the public K-12 classroom was not enough, we turn our attention to the publicly funded college. With the problems previously enumerated from the 1960s and 1970s, one can only assume that the quality of the general product of the public school system was greatly diminished. The natural consequence was a decrease in college admissions in the late 1970s and early 1980s, especially of students from inner-city high schools which were affected far worse than their suburban counterparts. To combat this “social crisis,” many state funded colleges and universities increasingly relaxed admissions requirements and crafted oxymoronic remedial college courses designed to provide students with the skills and knowledge they should have acquired in secondary school.

Monetary incentives were also given to many students to attend these “colleges.” The “greatest country in the world” could not retain or justify such a title if their college admission or graduation rates fell below those of other developed countries. According to eyewitness accounts, it appears that there was very little oversight, regulation, or vetting of the recipients of these incentives. Many did not matriculate or graduate on time, if at all. It was during this time that the average number of years it takes the average American student to complete a four-year degree increased from four to six; and it remains to this day. (If it has not risen.)

Public colleges were in a potentially perilous state. Low enrollment or graduation rates meant decreased income from tuition, decreased government funding, and inevitable closure. Coupled with having a limited pool of scholars truly qualified for higher scholarship and saddled with an alarming number of sub-standard students, there was only one intervention left: to lower the standards of the American college.

(A quick note about college education: Students get from their collegiate experience what they put into it. Higher scholarship is not like secondary education where the teacher is trying to engage students in the pursuit of skills and knowledge they will need to matriculate to college or a career. The college professor and environment is a haven where the student academic is encouraged to creatively and freely apply all that they learned in high school about the world and themselves and safely and securely challenge it. That being said: it is a black mark on the history of our public school system that our colleges were, and still are, relegated to accept and promote the gross mediocrity of the average American academic that we should be ashamed to call it “American.”)

 The “Neo-Modern” Era

We have now caught up to the present time period: the 1990s to the present. If the degradation of our college system was the final layer of the proverbial cake, then the last twenty years have been extremely rich and fattening icing. Ultraliberal social reformers used and influenced legislation of the early and mid 1990s to spark several movements financed and fueled almost entirely through fear-mongering and falsified data. They have inflicted what many could argue is irreparable damage to the public school system. The problem with such institutions at the forefront of these movements—non-profit organizations like Teach For America (TFA), The New Teacher Project (TNTP) who own and operate the Teaching Fellows Programs, Friendship-Edison, the Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP), and the frighteningly large amount of one-size-fit-all charter schools—is that they consistently proffer theories and “best practices” that fall prey to the logical fallacy post hoc ergo propter hoc.

            Post hoc ergo propter hoc translates to mean “after this, therefore because of this.”  Using this fallacious reasoning, people conclude that correlation implies causality, which is just wrong. Many of our current premier educational “reformers” have noticed that many inner-city communities lack resources, thus resulting in a disproportionate ability for the citizens to access meaningful educational materials and experiences. From this, reformers and pundits have concluded that poor citizens must be uneducated because they are poor. Remember the how the jejune adoption of rhetoric would be noticed in the future? Couple those consequences with the  consequences of the “popcorn” generations and the fact that children and students will reflect what we expect of them (which, as was stated, is very little). As such, the more correct conclusion is that: citizens in poorer communities are uneducated because their parents, communities, and thus government have made it an acceptable state of being.

This is not an opinion. We the people have made it clear through our expression of impulsivity and apathy that we are so reconciled with the idea that our public education system is hopeless that we actually incentivize students’ and parents’ lack of vigor for rigor with monetary reward. One example is the use of capital gains tax revenues to compensate students for attendance, but not work. The best example of said incentives is the issuance of Social Security Insurance (SSI) checks to parents of children with “disabilities” (e.g. false positive ADHD diagnoses). There are too many children and adults with valid diagnoses who cannot receive proper care because the system is inundated with false cases—all from slothful parents trying to collect money without working—that overwhelm the teachers’ and therapists’ abilities to effectively teach and treat their clients, respectively. Essentially, we have demanded that our legislators devise and then defend a system that basically pays people to raise their own children!

Where is the public outcry when a parent or guardian receives $500 to $1,300 per child, per month because they have a “disability” that causes them to do nothing more than “act out” in class? Rather, the public chooses to castigate teachers for being unable to control their students when the reality is that students are often told, by their parents, not to listen to the teacher. Almost anything that represents or represented reasonable discipline practice has been outlawed. In some states it is even considered corporal punishment to expect that a child clean up spilled milk if they deliberately pour it on the floor! What educational professional could endeavor to be successful, by any standard or measure, in this age where mediocrity is celebrated and sociopathy is encouraged? Who could effectually teach in these predominantly minority inner-city schools—with their nominal resources, high incidents of mental illness, and high crime rates—with their hands tied behind their backs? Of course: middle and upper middle-class ultraliberal men and women.

It is difficult not to say that we the people must be stupid or insane, but how would you qualify a citizenry that adopts and passionately defends the belief that nascent college graduates with (1) little to no classroom experience, (2) childhood and adolescent experiences in neighborhoods the antithesis of those they are serving, and (3) incomparable world experiences to those of the students they service, would make effective classroom educators simply because they are promising matriculates? How can we laud and applaud organizations that place inexperienced and nescient first-year teachers in the neediest American classrooms to teach subjects that are completely and utterly different than those they studied? How do we defend institutions that implement standards of practice that contribute to the greatest issue inner-city schools have faced since the 1960s—teacher retention? To top it all off, how can we fund and applaud organizations that blatantly state that their mission is NOT to develop effective teachers who achieve effectual results that will stay in the neediest American classrooms and schools (one of the primary factors that research has purported time and time again leads to student achievement and thus school success) but rather to fill Americas classrooms with obscenely ideological antidisestablishmentarians with political or administrative aspirations? Of the more than 600,000 words in the English lexicon, the only words that accurately describe any informed citizen or party that defends, justifies, and then has the audacity to promote and fund such a counterproductive approach to our public schools’ dilemma are “stupid” and “insane.”

In the 1990s, we realized that we had more problems than solutions. The level of the crisis probably accounts for our policy makers’ reactionary “fund any idea that sounds good and see if it works” approach to school reform. E.D. Hirsch Jr. opens his text, The Schools We Need and Why We Don’t Have Them (1996), with the sobering admonition that American “K-12 education is among the least effective in the developed world” (a statement that holds even more truth today). He then goes on to further explain “why the slogans promulgated by this monolithic system of ideas have turned out to be positive barriers to school improvement, and why alternative ideas are not readily accepted even in the name of radical reform” (pp.1-2). He notes that this new age of progressivism and strict adherence to ideological rhetoric over sound empirical methodology could only herald further systemic degradation. He concludes that he:

…placed the progressive movement within the tradition of American Romanticism, which began in the early nineteenth century and has persisted powerfully in our culture ever since. It is this pervasive, deep-dyed Romanticism, not just its one-time expression in the progressive movement, which continues to thwart a balanced educational approach that would emphasize high standards book learning, and hard work in school. Persistent educational Romanticism is the source of many assumptions about childhood and human nature that still pervade our minds and hearts. These deep-lying assumptions need to be modified—no easy task (p. 215).

In the mid 1990s, liberal ideologues, punch-drunk on the political capital gained by President Clinton’s “successes” and the economic rebound (which economists had predicted would occur and then naturally be followed by recession), were given an incredible amount of latitude in their development and implementation of school policies and reforms. Two great evils arose from this unchecked exercise of liberality: the Accountability and Choice Movements.

The concept of holding professionals accountable for doing their prescribed duties (a novel ideal: expecting someone to do their job) shifted into a political ideology with the revision of the previous version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act into the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001. Again, like most policy, NCLB in and of itself is a debatably benign factor; if we consider its jargon independent of the movements to which it lends legal credence. Naturally, being a federal law, it is extremely vague and ambiguous in its description of what districts and schools should be doing. It mostly enumerates the processes by which funding and incentives will be granted if the policies and ideological rhetoric are unilaterally adopted and implemented. As usual, evil is perpetrated in the interpretation and implementation of the law, not the law itself. Suffice it to say, the major consequence of NCLB is the ease and facility with which it enables the Accountability and Choice movements.

Even one of the initial champions of NCLB, Diane Ravitch, has backpedaled—after reexamining the rationale and logic her and her colleagues’ offered in support of the statutes—for reasons and concerns that she enumerates in her book Death and Life of the Great American School System (2010). She explains her reason for changing her views to be, simply:

I have a right to change my mind. …When someone chastised John Maynard Keynes for reversing himself about a particular economic policy he had previously endorsed, he replied “When the facts change, I change my mind. What do you do, sir?” This comment may or may not be apocryphal, but I admire the thought behind it” (p. 2).

When a man or woman is a true academic, they draw conclusions based on the evidence before them even if they do not like or agree with what it represents or reflects.

Upon review and reflection of her former platform, Ravitch concedes:

I grew increasingly disaffected from both the choice movement and the accountability movement. I was beginning to see the downside of both and to understand that they were not solutions to our educational dilemmas. As I watched both movements gain momentum across the nation, I concluded that curriculum and instruction were far more important than choice and accountability. I feared that choice would let thousands of flowers bloom but would not strengthen American education. It might even harm public schools by removing the best students from schools in the poorest neighborhoods. I was also concerned that accountability, now a shibboleth that everyone applauds, had become mechanistic and even antithetical to good education [Are you listening, Ms. Rhee?]. Testing, I realized with dismay, had become a central preoccupation in the schools and was not just a measure but an end in itself. I came to believe that accountability, as written into federal law, was not raising standards but dumbing down the schools as states and districts strived to meet unrealistic targets (pp.12-13).

Although long, this is a fairly comprehensive list of valid reasons people have to proffer in criticism of NCLB as interpreted and implemented. Thankfully, a small cadre of true scholars, following in Ms. Ravitch’s righteous footsteps, are reopening their eyes and breaking from the hypnotic but myopic rhetoric of the ignoble and ignorant bleeding-heart leftist. (As biased and prejudicial as this may sound, it is more a reflection of the disappointment with people who have perfectly functional brains and staunchly refuse to observe life without their ideological goggles and debunk or criticize any truth before them that does not vibe with their personal sentiments.)

Ms. Ravitch lends voice to reason and offers her misguided colleagues a plan to reclaim their dignity and revise their current policies—crimes against the American classroom. She explains that, despite her initial support:

as NCLB was implemented, I became increasingly disillusioned. I came to realize that the law bypassed curriculum and standards. Although its supporters often claimed it was a natural outgrowth of the standards movement, it was not. It demanded that schools generate higher test scores in basic skills, but it required no curriculum at all, nor did it raise standards. …Tests should follow the curriculum. They should be based on the curriculum. They should not follow it or precede it. Students need a coherent foundation of knowledge and skills that grows stronger each year. Knowledge and skills are both important, as is learning to think, debate, and question. A well-educated person has a well-furnished mind, shaped by reading and thinking about history, science, literature, the arts, [the arts, the arts,] and politics. The well-educated person has learned how to explain ideas and listen respectfully to others (pp. 15-16).

No argument here.

The major dysfunction with the interpretation of NCLB lies in its verbiage. It stokes the fire and provides political ammunition for the advocates and supporters of the Choice movement. These activists saturate our neediest school districts, urban and rural, with ineffectual charter schools owned and operated by community outsiders often with little connection to the community and negligible classroom experience. However, this is not a criticism of all charter schools, just the movement that has inspired the plundering of our public schools to build equally, if not more, ill-reputable edifices of intellectual lethargy and academic spoon-feeding.

Charter schools existed before the Choice movement. The first on record opened in Minnesota in 1991 when a group of reasonably concerned parents convinced their local government to issue a charter for a privately owned and operated public K-12 institution. This event, while generally unknown by the average citizen, must have received some press because the inaugural KIPP charter school opened in Austin (arguably the most liberal city in the great state of Texas) in 1995. KIPP, along with many other national charter school organizations, have received copious press lauding their “successes and gains” with their poor inner-city clients. However, honest research is finally being published by qualified empiricists, as opposed to idealistic doctrinaires, who are drawing differing conclusions as they properly analyze appropriately collected and disaggregated data.

Based on their conclusions, it seems we have allowed the Choice movement to take us backward in time. It appears, based on the statistics, that segregation is, once again, rearing its ugly head. Hence, this period in time can be aptly qualified as “Neo-Modernism.” Vasquez, Williams, McNeil, and Lee (2011) state in their peer reviewed article, Is Choice a Panacea? An Analysis of Black Secondary Student Attrition from KIPP, Other Private Charters, and Urban Districts, that “extant literature has demonstrated that charter schools are increasing segregation” (p. 158). They cite that:

Garcia (2008) noted the national overrepresentation of Black and Latina/o students in charter networks such as KIPP, many of who come from low-SES, urban backgrounds. In fact, recent studies have found that charter schools across the nation are more segregated than comparable local districts (Frankenberg, Siegel-Hawley, & Wang, 2011; Miron, Urschel, Mathis, & Tornquist, 2010) (p.158).

So, we are rewarding and applauding the current social movements for essentially returning the public education system to the status quo of the 1950s and 60s while they hypocritically exhort that all students, regardless of race, class, gender, and ability, are entitled to a “free, appropriate public education.” (I cannot speak for all. However, I am positive that many would agree that segregation of any kind is in direct contradiction to the messages of inclusion preached and averred by Choice supporters all over the political landscape.) These are the facts. But here we the people, supposedly in support of freedom and justice, stand silent.

In keeping with the themes of exclusion and results “by any means necessary,” Vasquez et al. (2011) also point out that, despite the lack of honest data and evidence “some have praised charter schools as open-access and an extension of democracy, while others have argued that charter schools often serve fewer students with special education needs or English Language Learners (Lacireno-Paquet, Holyoke, Moser, & Henig, 2002).” Again, school statistics highlight that charter schools’ standards of practice yield further evidence that the Choice movement is diametrically opposed to its predecessors: the Labor, Civil Rights, and Deinstitutionalization movements.

Unbelievable? Well, “nationally, Miron et al. (2011) found that KIPP schools enrolled fewer students with disabilities than their local school districts” (p.158). This does not mean that they do not serve lower performing students (mostly because there is a lot of federal funding provided for the education of students with disabilities despite the fact that a larger population of them negatively impacts desperately important standardized achievement scores). However, “critics have argued that KIPP ‘backfills’ their grades with high-achieving students as low-achieving students leave—thus producing illusory achievement success noted in the SRI study (Kahlenberg, 2011)” (p. 159). As a successful teacher with experience in non-profit educational organizations and public, private, and charter schools from the Hawaiian Islands to Washington, DC, this author can state from first-hand experience that these unethical practices are not only widespread but emphatically supported by politicians, pundits, reformers, and administrators at every level of influence in the public educational sector.

When challenged, these “reformers'” ace-in-the-whole defense of their policies is yet another piece of intriguing, but fallacious, rhetoric—the infamous “achievement gap.” This phrase describes the phenomenon where, after standardized achievement test data is disaggregated and compared within regions, it is apparent that minority students achieve lower scores than their majority counterparts. Once again: post hoc, ergo propter hoc. Have we forgotten the major issues with standardized testing in public schools?

The first issue is that the public does not really understand standardized tests. Ms. Ravitch (2010) explains the issues using standardized test data to guide instructional practice:

The problem with using tests to make important decisions [or draw conclusions] about people’s lives is that standardized tests are not precise instruments. Unfortunately, most elected officials do not realize this, nor does the general public. The public thinks the tests have scientific validity, like that of a thermometer or a barometer, and that they are objective, not tainted by fallible human judgment. But test scores are not comparable to standard weights and measures; they do not have the precision of a doctor’s scale or a yardstick. Tests vary in their quality, and even the best tests may sometimes be error-prone, because of human mistakes or technical foul-ups. Hardly a testing season passes without a news story about a goof made by a major testing company. Sometimes questions are poorly worded. Sometimes the answers are wrongly scored. Sometimes the supposedly “right” answer to a question is wrong or ambiguous. Sometimes two of four answers on a multiple-choice question are equally correct (p. 152).

Nonetheless, movement supporters want us to accept their theory of an “achievement gap” based on the results and conclusions of unreliable and invalid measurements that yield data that is also (duh) unreliable and invalid.

It has also never been declared, in public forum, that despite the fact that while historically minorities have scored lower on tests designed for them to score low in the first place, they have managed to make major achievements and continue to do so every day. For example: Hundreds of HBCUs arose from the dust of slavery and segregation and matriculated scholar after scholar who challenged and changed the status quo of this nation every generation since. Likewise, over the last two decades the number of new Black and minority millionaires has risen to record highs. But we have an achievement gap? We do not have an achievement gap, we have an “acknowledgement gap.” Perhaps we should acknowledge the achievements minorities make in this country every day, and have made from the meager beginnings of America. For many inner-city youth, it is an achievement if they make it to school and back home safely because statistics imply that they should have been dead years ago. Maybe we should truly accept and study our complete American history and not relegate Slavery, the Suffragettes, and the Civil Rights and Deinstitutionalization Movements to nothing more than footnotes in social studies textbooks. Perhaps we should fully acknowledge the social and political ramifications that have prevented our public education system from ever living up to or meeting its potential.

We are taking the wrong approach. We cannot make public education great by focusing on past glory that does not exist. We need to look forward.

Conclusion

Down the timeline, we the people have consistently elected and re-elected legislators and policymakers who adopted and supported a radically liberal social agenda. This agenda has undermined every element that composes effectual public education and sold American scholarship for a healthy serving of plenary indulgences and empty rhetoric. The guiding rhetoric of the educational policies enacted in the last five decades has bartered away instruction for ideology, product for presentation, aptitude for ambition, ethics for entitlements, standards for symbols, order for option, and knowledge for nothing.

Our government established a public education system by the people, for the people, and we the people, through our intellectual lethargy, have allowed it to descend into ill-repute. We holler for reform, but ignore or transform the facts and propagate fallacies to shift blame, spare egos, vilify heroes, and exalt mediocrity to assuage our desire to get as much as we can with the smallest possible amount of mental or financial expenditure. People cry foul when they feel their civil liberties are in jeopardy, but profusely refuse to perform their civic duties (e.g. voting and paying taxes) in staggeringly high numbers. We accept every proffered excuse for disinterested and ill-mannered students and staff. Discipline is all but outlawed because almost every strategy we could use to establish and maintain order is practically criminal. Consequently, while other countries that impress in their citizens from birth the value of pure and thoughtful scholarly pursuits blitz forward and trail-blaze exciting and innovative academic avenues, America has made so few gains in the last few decades that we have unofficially renamed ourselves the United Stagnates of America.

We the people have elected and re-elected policymakers, with no teaching or practical educational experience aside from their own personal K-12 and/or college experiences, and actually tasked them to legislate the act of thinking out of public school policy and regulations. Teachers who dare require that their students use their own minds to solve their own problems in their efforts to reach their own social and academic goals are reprimanded and subjugated. They could also be subjected to political tactics that disenchant them and cause them to deign to do the work they love—teach and educate America’s children and prepare them to be competitive on the world stage. We have revised the American intelligentsia’s internalization of the Latin moral cogito ergo sum, posited by the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau meaning “I think, therefore I am,” to Nos Censuimus Igitur Essemus, meaning “We thought, therefore we were.” When we began to legislate against the exercise of critical thought and self-reliance, through excessive and poorly thought out entitlement and incentive programs, we inadvertently created generations of non-thinkers and non-starters with the disease we refer to as learned helplessness. As such, they have spent generations proliferating and degrading the quality of the American scholar, and thus, American scholarship.

Consequently, the systemic failures of American public education can only be attributed to the gross negligence of the American public. We the people have failed to respond to, adopt, or adapt: (1) a realistic philosophy and (2) a respect for wisdom. Administrators impose “modern” empirical trends to treat the symptoms not fix the sources of the problems that have taken generations to develop and will take generations to resolve. School reformers are endeavoring to revolutionize and “reform” an imaginary national system. They focus their attention on procuring and retaining professionals who are (usually) knowledgeable of pedagogy and content. However, most severely lack the social and emotional intelligence to develop and maintain the relationships and therapeutic milieus necessary to effectuate student academic and personal achievement beyond general knowledge of assessment content and criteria.

Adopting or adapting a realistic philosophy is not a neoteric idea or concept. It is yet another “Inconvenient Truth” that Americans have been unwilling to accept and politicians and protagonists are, thus, less likely to explicate or even exploit. There are only a few pure academicians who have attempted to contribute to an honest dialogue, rooted in realistic and logical thinking, who are concerned with honestly and carefully raising the educational expectations of our children. Thankfully, there are a few dissentient, often disparaged, theorists and practitioners who will not be quieted by popular opinion or fallacious obloquy. Charles Murray, author of The Bell Curve and other honest conversation starters, bluntly states in his book Real Education (2008) that:

The [American] educational system is living a lie[:]…that every child can be anything he or she wants to be. No one believes it, but we approach education’s problems as if we did. We are phobic about saying out loud that children differ in their ability to learn the things that schools teach. Not only do we hate to say it, we get angry with people who do. …We have idealized images of the potential that children bring to the classroom and of our ability to realize that potential. When the facts get in the way, we ignore them (pp. 11 & 13).

For years, the public has often, mistakenly, beseeched the Federal Government for solutions (most often in the form of monetary funding). However, we should be reaching out to the bureaucracy that has the most lasting impact on, and greatest investment in, the education of America’s children—the local citizenry. The local community is the American child’s first line of contact and communication with American social, economic, political, and cultural schema. To further the American students’ potential, parents, teachers, businessmen, neighbors, etc. need to fully participate in and contribute to, in accordance with their respective roles and responsibilities, the complete education of all children and not look to one group or entity to do the whole job with lip service and moral support.

Ironically, the very quality that makes America great is the very one ignored when we implement educational reform policies and agendas: America is diverse—a “melting pot,” if you will. Each geographic region, state, county, and district is only mildly relatable to another. Nevertheless, politicians, non-profit organizations, and well-intentioned but naive philanthropists continuously attempt to collect, disaggregate, and compare invalid and unreliable standardized test data across regions with unlike demographics. Then they use the “results” to draw fallacious conclusions, inaccurate inferences, and make misguided decisions about teaching and learning in the American classroom. No consideration is given to the effects of the periods of time spent outside the classroom. There is no federal legislation regarding the accountability of the parent, student, or community for the education of their own children. Most legislative policies and rhetoric imply that the public school system (and not the public) is unilaterally responsible for our children’s lack of achievement.

The purpose of this diatribe is to get the American people to  “wake up and listen to and heed history and wisdom.” Dissent, appropriately and necessarily, to  ensure that qualified educators employ apodictic strategies that have stood the greatest test—time—to effectively reach and teach our children. Eschew the pompous histrionics of the jejune doctrinaires allowed to run amok and wreak havoc in America’s classrooms and thus on America’s future. Let teachers teach. Use books for more than paperweights and minds and mouths for more than myopic regurgitation of quotidian rhetoric. Let teachers teach. Exemplify the meaning of philosophy and seek the love of wisdom. Rousseau wisely declared that “the teacher’s art consists in this: To turn the child’s attention from trivial details and to guide his thoughts continually towards relations of importance which he will one day need to know, that he may judge rightly of good and evil in society.” Real teaching is art. Real learning is science. America: expect the teachers to teach and the students to learn. Wake up and revive the spirit that believed that all are entitled to the ideals of freedom and equality and rejuvenate and reengineer the greatness that was, and could be again, the American scholar.

Homeschooling Is A Beautiful Thing!

Homeschooling is a beautiful thing. Hard, but beautiful.

As a homeschooling parent, you have the freedom to weave your family’s values, your educational goals, and your children’s passions into the living journey of homeschooling. You get to take a step back and look at the bigger picture. You do not need to become entangled or even burdened with what the school down the street is up to, because you have the ability to design a program that is perfectly suited for not only each of your children, but your entire family as well.

To be a successful homeschooler you need a foundation, a plan, and sheer determination.

Foundation

This is the most essential piece to the homeschooling puzzle.You need to lay a solid foundation for your children and your family.

  • What does your ideal homeschool environment look like?
  • What do imagine your daily routine to look like? How will the house run in the midst of your homeschool day?
  • Will your children help around the house?
  • What part will both you and your spouse play in their education?
  • Will you incorporate your faith into the school day?

 

If you are a new homeschooler, you should take a few days to consider what your foundation should look like. If you are a brand new homeschooler, understand you may laugh at your ideas a few months from now, but that should not stop you from laying an idea of your foundation.

Plan

It is true, “If you fail to plan, you plan to fail.”The good news is, in homeschooling the plan is fluid and changeable. You do not need to stick with plans that are failing, but you do need a plan.

  • What grade levels are your children?
  • What subjects are required to be taught in your state?
  • What topics would you like to teach your children?
  • Will you design your own teaching materials or acquire them from a big curriculum company?
  • How long will your school day/year be?
  • Where will you find coaching, mentoring, and encouragement?

Sheer Determination

Homeschooling is wonderful, but it is also wonderfully hard. It is a huge undertaking to not only educate your child, but keep your home from falling apart simultaneously. There will absolutely be days when you question everything. There will be more than one day, week, or year that you fear that you are ruining your child’s education. This is normal.

Before you go any deeper into this thing called homeschooling, you should:

Determine that you will stay the course.

Determine to never quit out of frustration. When those days come that cause you to believe you should quit, decalre it a free play day, go to the library, visit a veteran homeschooler, or go to the zoo. Just determine to never quit out of frustration.

Understand that homeschooling is hard, but that just because it is hard does not mean you are unqualified. Honestly there is no one more qualified to teach your children than you are. You know their strengths, weaknesses, and passions better than anyone else.

Homeschooling can be extremely fun, rewarding and exhausting. It is worth every bit of effort to be able to see your child blossom into a curious learner.

If what you are currently doing is not working, go back and look at your foundation and plan. As a veteran homeschooler, I can assure you that it is very common for homeschoolers to go on tangents. It is also common to throw out topics or whole curriculums that are not a good fit for your family.

Change is good.

Homeschooling is good. It is not for everyone, but it is good!

The Pros And Cons Of Becoming An Elementary School Teacher

Following a vocation as a primary school teacher will give you a vital role in the development of our children’s thinking during imperative, earlier years. At this point, students are easily impressed and able absorb superb amounts of info. The very future of many small kids lies lies with the earliest teachers they will ever have. Creativity and the ability to relate to first education kids is vital for these teachers to be effective in the classroom. First education teachers indoctrinate, coach, and entertain small children all to creatively condition important essential life skills.

An elementary school teacher will generally keep a class of students throughout the day. While the students may change classes for art, choir, p.e. Or other supplemental classes, they’ll have one primary teacher that may teach multiple subjects such as English, science, maths, history and more . The elementary education teacher general develops a robust relation ship with his / her class through a year of teaching the same students daily.

Today, nearly every kind of teacher will need to have at least basic PC talents and be well placed to teach students the proper way to run word processors, spread sheets, and other standard programs. This is an ability that during the past wasn’t available but will be part of any post secondary schooling for the aspiring teacher. PC laboratories are exceedingly commonplace in both non-public and larger public schools. This delivers superb opportunity for delightful, interesting, hands on communication between the teacher and the students.

For special education, junior school, teachers will be specially given training to work with these kids. The issues are sometimes intense, but the rewards great when working with special education scholars. The degree to which a student needs changed assignments is according to the level and stage of development every individual student is in. This makes it more complicated and challenging for the special education teacher to focus on and properly teach a single class of children at widely varying stages of development. The number of student a teacher will be working with will change between faculties, but in general, teachers in private colleges will enjoy smaller class sizes and more customized attention for each student.

Training required for elementary school instructors will be geared particularly toward a teaching career. For public education, sometimes school districts require a BSc or higher and courses specifically required for teaching junior school in the district. In private faculties licensure isn’t usually needed, but it is needed for public education in all fifty states. Required licensing is issued by state boards of education and will be based on the nation’s needs as well as individual district school board policies. Numerous states license for elementary education, others for precise grade ranges.

Powering Business Performances through MBA

This all-time favorite degree called MBA (Masters in Business Administration) is one of the most popular choices for Indian graduates. It been realized over the years that more and more students in India are choosing to pursue a management degree to get their career catapult into the next level. And the kind of economy we have in India; it pays too. It pays to have the credential and then pitch yourself into the scary, big world out there. By no means I am trying to scare you but the fact is that competition is huge and it is very important for you to be as skilled as possible so that you can show and provide competitive differentiation to the companies when you go for the recruitment.

Once you complete the MBA then broadly you have two distinct choices in terms of joining the employers. Please note that in this case, I am not considering self-employment (entrepreneurship) just for now. So, coming back to the point, you have essentially two options viz. joining an SME (Small and Medium Sized Employer) and MNC (Multi National Corporation). There are pros and cons of each category and there’s not any particular street so as to speak which you have to follow. As like everything else, you have to analyze and assess what suits you best and then move ahead.

Just to make your analysis a little easy, I shall be providing you with differences associated with working in a MNC as opposed to SME.

First of all, MNCs are giant. There are some of the obvious perks of working in MNCs such as better pay, brand name, equity sharing, more experienced colleagues and managers to learn from, world-class learning materials, software and other useful resources. It also means that there will be more people to share the workload however you will typically have a narrow job scope. You won’t be able to let your hands go dirty into various different things.

Now, coming to the SME – the first thought which comes to any graduate in India is… will it be secured? Won’t the company cease to exist? Well, here’s my take on this. What on earth is there which has absolutely no end? I have personally never believed in the idea of jobs or companies being secured for a lifetime. Infact, it’s our skillset which makes us recession proof and secured in the longer run. I have seen MNCs collapsing in a matter of days. So, personally, I reject the idea of looking at SME as a not so stable career option. At an SME, you will have an opportunity to try various things and hence enhanced learning. You will be able to get personalized attention from your peers and managers which will ultimately help you in being better groomed to take on bigger challenges in life.

Top quality MBA from a top business school will help your game so as to speak. They will open a lot of doors which at first you didn’t know even existed.
I happened to speak at various b-school throughout India and my recent visit to Nashik has allowed me to foray into the world of futuristic education where I happened to visit top management college in Nashik which is redefining management education for once and all. With international quality infrastructure, international student body, top-notch industry experts in the faculty wing and high level of industry-institute interactions, guest lecturers from eminent industrialists making the engineering education a truly global affair. In order to get into the best MBA program in Maharashtra and other states too, a solid preparation right from subconscious level to your physical being. This will totally help you in finding you place at best management school in Maharashtra and indeed at best management program.

I can safely conclude that like other places in the country, Nashik indeed has great options for aspiring business students. I encourage prospective students to become very active in doing the research which should ideally include the type of college, teacher-student ratio, curriculum, availability of internships, extra-curricular activities, guest lectures and other events organized by the college as with the new business era at the doorstep, things have dramatically changed and hence student’s approach towards the whole admission to education process needs to be changed.

Pakistan’s Education System – Problems and Reasons for Policy Failure

After more than a half century of independence, nearly half of Pakistan’s population is still illiterate. According toHathaway (2005), Pakistan’s education system is regularly cited as one of the most serious impediments preventing the country from achieving its potential.

Poorly produced and inadequately implemented educational policies and plans have been major hurdles in the development of the education sector in Pakistan. Throughout our history, new policies and plans have often been prepared without giving due consideration to the causes of failure of previous policies and plans.

In order to address these problems, there is a need for the formulation of rational policies and plans as well as an adequate system for their implementation. The objective of this paper is to scrutinize the problems being faced by the education sector in Pakistan. It also seeks to highlight the reasons for the failure of the national education policy.

Background of Pakistan’s Education System

According to several international assessments, Pakistan is far from achieving the goal of Education for All (henceforth, EFA). The EFA was set to be attained by all developing countries under the Dakar Framework decided at a meeting held in Senegal in 2000. UNESCO attributes Pakistan’s placement at a lower EFA development Index (EDI) category to low primary school participation, adult illiteracy, gender disparities, inequalities in education and poor quality of education. The adult literacy rate in Pakistan is under 50 percent, while less than one-third of adult women have a functional reading ability. Pakistan is unlikely to achieve the adult literacy target by 2015. Progress is slow, while gender parity goal is at risk of not being achieved in 2015. Moreover, more than 6 million children are out of school. (UNESCO 2007)

Key Performance Indicators for Education Systems

The frequently used indicators are adult literacy rates, male and female enrollment at different levels and in different areas of the country; the dropout rates, the amount of resources committed to education as a proportion of the GDP and, finally, some measure of the quality of education provided. To these indicators, one should also add the quality of data and information available about education. Unfortunately, Pakistan’s record is relatively poor on all these counts.

An Overview of Problems being faced by Pakistan’s Education Sector

According to the Asian Development Bank, Pakistan’s education sector is marred by corruption, strong gender and regional inequalities and insufficient budget allocations, leading to social imbalances and poor delivery of services in the public sector.

Insufficient Budget Allocation

While the share of public education expenditure in national budgets increased in many regional countries moving towards Universal Primary Education (UPE), it has declined in Pakistan. According to the International Crisis Group, Pakistan is one of only 12 countries in the world that spends less than 2 percent of its GDP on education.

Under utilization of Funds

Less than fifty percent of the funds allocated for development expenditure of the Ministry of Education at the federal level are actually utilized (Aly 2007). A major reason for this underutilization of funds is their complex financial allocation and release system.

Corruption

Corruption is one of the major contributing factors for failure of educational policy. It is due to lack of accountability and transparency along with low salaries of the staff. An estimated Rs. 2,594 million out of a total of Rs. 7,016 million provided for improvement of school facilities such as buildings, electricity, drinkable water, etc had gone unaccounted during the fiscal periods 2001-06. (UNESCO 2007) Similarly more than 70% literacy centres in Punjab are inoperative or exist only on paper(ADBP 2007).

Gender Discrimination and Regional Inequalities

The adult female illiteracy rate in the country was twice as high as for males, according to a report released by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in September. The illiteracy rate was 23.3% for males and 46.9% for females. According to the National Economic Survey, Balochistan had the largest number of schools in disorder. It also had the lowest number of educational institutions, the lowest literacy rate among both males and females, the lowest ranking in the Gender Parity Index and the fewest private educational institutes in the country.

Multiplicity of Systems leading to Social Imbalances

There are many systems working in the country, resulting in social division and conflict. The students from the elite class follow the “O” and “A” levels curriculum instead of Pakistan’s domestic poor quality curriculum. They have little or no awareness of their religion and culture whereas those passing out from Urdu medium schools are usually destined to work in clerical and lower level positions. Religious madrassas churn out yet another class that is usually unaware of the world outside their own.

Poor Delivery of Services leading to Low Enrolment in Schools

Teacher absenteeism, untrained teachers, inadequate materials and obsolete teaching methods are the main reasons for low enrolment in schools. According to Burki, most of the public schools are poorly managed, impart education of poor quality, use poorly written textbooks and use curricula that are not relevant for the needs of the 21st century.

The dropout rate of those lucky enough to be enrolled was 45%. According to several reports, most of the public sector educational institutions remain in a state of disrepair and lack even basic facilities resulting in substandard education. There are four areas that cry for immediate attention; curriculum, textbooks, examinations, and teacher training. (Hoodbhoy 2001)

Private Schools

In comparison with other countries; private basic education in Pakistan enrolls more students than in all countries in the region. The rapid growth of private schools and teaching academies reflects the people’s lack of trust in the public sector schools coupled with a deficiency of sufficient educational institutions to cater to the needs of the fast growing population. However, most of the private schools are only slightly better than the public ones. A few elite schools offer quality education but their inflated fee structure continues to be a problem.

The Policy Environment and Reasons for its Failure

National Education Policy (1998-2010) was prepared prior to Dakar, but since 2001, the Ministry of Education has developed a number of interrelated policy documents after active consultations with NGOs and international development agencies. However, serious problems exist in the policy environment.

Firstly, these problems are arising due to lack of commitment and inefficient management on part of the state. The policy lacks long term vision and its implementation is affected by undue political interference. Moreover, it is not evidence based and reflects the vested interests of the authorities. It does nothing to promote rational and critical thinking skills amongst the students.

Additionally, there is a lack of resource commitment, absence of a realistic implementation plan and poor utilization of resources which are allocated. As relevant statistics are not available, implementation of the education policy has not been successfully executed.

Also, due to weak budgetary planning, the financial data is not centralized and coordinated (USAID 2006). There is a lack of coordination in need assessment and project design and implementation within the government and the donor agencies. Similarly, there is hardly any harmonization between the federal and provincial governments which leads to poor policy implementation.

Another problem with the policy formation process is that little attention is being paid to strengthen the planning wing of the Ministry of Education.

There are also complaints that the government’s consultation with the non-state sector does not necessarily result in action. Teachers have also been generally ignored in the policy making process. So another reason for the failure of our educational policy is consultation without implementation. (UNESCO 2007)

While the policy environment has been favourable to dialogue, and mainly the private but also the public sector has made some contribution to improving access, the challenges to improving quality remain largely unresolved despite much policy deliberation.

Conclusion

As education is the backbone in the development of any nation, the countries that have an effective system of education also happen to be the leaders of the world, both socially and economically. In short it is education, which can turn the population of any country from a burden to human resource. Pakistan’s dire state of education sector and policy implementation demands immediate attention from the government. Without doubling its current financial commitment to education, Pakistan cannot address the numerous challenges to meeting EFA targets by 2015.

References

Hoodbhoy, P. (2001). What are they Teaching in Pakistani Schools Today? Retrieved December 5, 2008, from http://web.mit.edu/bilal/www/education/hoodbhoy1.html

Burki, S. J.  (2005). Educating the Pakistani Masses. Retrieved December 6, 2008, from http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/pubs/FinalPDF.pdf

Hathaway, R. M.  (2005). Education Reform in Pakistan: Building for the Future. Retrieved December 6, 2008, from http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/pubs/FinalPDF.pdf

Aly, J.H. (2007). Education in Pakistan: A White Paper (Revised). Documentation to Debate and Finalize the National Education Policy. Islamabad: Government of Pakistan, National Education Policy Review Team.

Bano, M. (2007). Pakistan Country Case Study: Education for All by 2015, Will we make it? UNESCO.

Din, N & Ansari, S. (2008). State of Human Rights in 2007

Iftikhar, A. Recommendations for Improving Education in Pakistan.

Home School Education – Advantages And Disadvantages

Why Parents Choose a Home School Education

An increasing number of children today are receiving a home school education. The reasons for making the choice to homeschool their kids varies from family to family but there are three main reasons why parents are removing their children from the public school system and giving them a home school education.

The first reason is that the public education system in the United States is struggling to provide a proper education for the nation’s children with out of date text books, run down school buildings and inadequate equipment. Provision of a home school education enables the parents to have control over the quality of the educational materials used by their children and the general conditions in which they are educated.

The second reason is that parents wish to assume more control over the influences their children will be exposed to. This is often on the basis of religious grounds but, very often, it is simply because a home school education will ensure the child learns the values upheld by the family and is taught from an early age what behavior is appropriate. Unfortunately, many public schools have a poor reputation for instilling good discipline in students. This often results in badly behaved children disrupting lessons and preventing their peers from getting the full benefit of classes. Discipline and the upholding of proper standards of behavior is an important part of a home school education.

The third reason many parents choose to give their children a home school education is fear for their safety. Violence is on the increase everywhere and the public school system has not escaped this trend. Violence in the public education system is getting worse and the individual acts of violence are more serious. Since the shocking events at Columbine High School there have been further tragedies involving firearms where teachers and students have been injured or killed. A home school education ensures the safety of children who would otherwise be seriously at risk of harm.

The Disadvantages of Opting For Homeschooling

Providing a home school education is not simply a matter of parental choice. In most cases the state education board of the state in which the family resides will have to approve a decision to give a child a home school education. The person taking on the responsibility of homeschooling must be certified to be a home teacher, the curriculum must follow the state curriculum, and the text books and other educational materials to be used must be approved by the state. Although this might seen like undue interference in what is a matter of personal choice, the state has a responsibility to ensure that all children receive an adequate standard of education and checks will be made to ensure that any child being kept away from public school is being properly educated.
A home school education might mean that a child is deprived of certain opportunities which would have been available within the public school system. There could be difficulties in providing facilities for athletic children to realize their potential. Musically talented children could be similarly disadvantaged. In some states there is provision for children receiving a home school education to take part in amenities such as being able to attend sports lessons and join after-school clubs. However, the level of assistance provided to homeschooling parents is not uniform and varies a lot from state to state.

The final potential disadvantage to affect children receiving a home school education is that they will not develop the social skills which will be important as they grow up. Social interaction with their peers and with adults outside the family is essential if a child is going to grow up with a properly balance personality and a reasonable level of social skills. These developmental issues can be fairly easily overcome if the child lives in a state where homeschooling parents are given support and the child receiving a home school education is accepted into classes and extra-curricular activities.

The decision to keep a child out of the public education system is not one any parent would make lightly and any weighing up of the pros and cons must take into account the level of support the state will provide. However, if the public school system continues to deteriorate, the number of children receiving a home school education is bound to increase.

Christian Homeschooling Curriculum

There are many reasons why someone would want to home school their children with a Christian homeschooling curriculum. A lot of homeschooling programs have some of the best programs available on the market. Some may even argue they are better than traditional school because of the extreme focus being put on one child. With most Christian programs for schooling children, you may find CD-ROMS used for educating the child. The students can benefit from grade specific texts. Just like any other traditional school, the curriculum is split up into certain grade levels. Most Christian homeschooling have a strong international emphasis. Some users of these types of programs find the work challenging and advanced, which could be seen as a good thing when you want your child to learn above the common lessons that are being taught in regular school.

There are many benefits and disadvantages to using Christian homeschooling curriculums. For the advantages, the child can learn at their own speed, but at the same time challenge themselves to more advanced material. As we all know, advanced learning is important when dealing with the real world and certain workplace environments. Most of these homeschooling programs cover all grades and is focused towards preparing the student for college. Even though these are all good things dealing with homeschooling, there are some disadvantages that should also be considered. For one, the student may become easily distracted at home than they would in a more traditional setting. Television, video games and interruptions are some challenges a child may face when being taught at home. Also, if the child does not grasp the material, they might need outside help. Sometimes, children may need a live tutor to help them besides a CD-ROM or computer based learning curriculum.

Christian homeschooling curriculums vary in cost, depending on the program and the specifics of the learning plans. Some programs charge on a monthly basis, which parents find more affordable and reasonable. I have seen some that only cost $100 a month, which seems like a reasonable price for students or guardians looking to school their children at home. However, if the child will need extra help for grasping the material, they may need an outside tutor or teacher to walk them through the learning plans. This can add on to the initial cost as another expense.

Williamsburg Northside a Brooklyn Elementary School Introduces physical and health education classes

Williamsburg Northside Lower School, a Brooklyn elementary school, offers various health and physical education classes for its students. According to the school, the purpose of the physical education program is to empower the Brooklyn elementary school’s students to sustain regular, lifelong physical activity as a foundation for a healthy, productive, and fulfilling life.

Becoming a physically educated person is a developmental process that begins in early childhood and continues throughout one’s life. The physical education program offers fundamental movement skills in the area of body awareness, spatial orientation, relationships, object manipulation, games, and sports. Principles of good sportsmanship, as well as respectful competition and safety in the gymnasium are emphasized throughout the year. These programs vary according to age groups and grades.

Kindergarten:

The program emphasizes body and spatial awareness, locomotor and non-locomotor skills. Its aim is for children to feel enjoyment and confidence in themselves and their abilities. Goals and activities include:

  • Locomotor skills—hopping, skipping, jumping
  • Non-manipulative skills—balancing, rolling, stretching
  • Manipulative skill—dribbling, volleying, collecting
  • Cooperative games
  •  The ability to demonstrate healthful practices such as washing hands, covering one’s mouth when coughing or sneezing, and brushing and flossing teeth.

First grade:

First grade builds on the skills already learned, with a greater emphasis on manipulative skills. Students of the Brooklyn elementary are also given an opportunity to explore stationary and moving balance as well as health and fitness concepts. Goals and activities include:

  • Experience with manipulative skills such as throwing, catching, volleying, and dribbling
  • Striking with implements—rackets, bats, hockey sticks
  • Introduction to health-and-fitness topics such as the food guide and physical activity pyramids
  • Understand how behaviors such as food selection, exercise, and rest affect growth and development.

Second Grade:

Second grade involves increased interaction between traveling and directions, levels (high, medium, low) and pathways (curved, straight, zigzag). Goals and activities include:

  • Circus arts—juggling, spinning plates
  • Bowling
  • Chasing, fleeing, dodging
  • Kicking and punting
  • The ability to demonstrate the use of interpersonal skills to enhance health

Third Grade:

Third grade builds on the curriculum by working toward demonstrating the mature form of moving in selected combinations of locomotor, non-locomotor, and manipulative skills. Goals include the ability to:

  • Identify movement in terms of effort (how the body moves), space (where the body moves), and relationships (with objects, people or both).
  • Know and apply principles and components of health-related fitness.
  • Begin to demonstrate mature form in various skills.
  • Develop injury prevention and management strategies for personal health.

Fourth Grade:

Although health issues are integrated throughout the elementary years, they are formally discussed beginning in fourth grade.

1)      Motor: Small-sided games—that is, few players per team—are introduced in fourth grade.

Students use cooperation and problem-solving skills to accomplish group or team goals.

Goals include the ability to:

  • Respond to winning and losing with dignity and understanding
  • Experiences with increased interaction between locomotor skills, non-locomotor skills, and manipulative skills
  • Understand strategies related to offense and defense

2)      Health: In fourth grade there is a deeper look into the influence of culture, media, technology, and other factors on health. Health is influenced by a variety of factors, including the cultural context as well as media and technology. Students of the Brooklyn elementary school use their critical thinking and problem-solving skills to analyze, evaluate, and interpret the influence of these factors on health. The goals include:

  • Describing how culture influences personal health behaviors
  • Explaining how information from school and family influences health
  • Describing ways technology can influence health
  • Explaining how media influences thoughts, feelings, and health behaviors

Fifth Grade:

1)      Motor: Fifth graders begin identifying muscle groups when performing specific actions and applying movement concepts using speed variables. Goals include the ability to:

  • Recognize and communicate feedback
  • Understand fitness components related to cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance and flexibility
  • Understand, respect, and appreciate individuals on the basis of their unique characteristics as well as their contributions to a group.

2)      Health: In fifth grade, the students are expected to demonstrate an understanding of the five aspects of health —mental, emotional, physical, social, and spiritual—and the wellness spectrum—a scale showing possible health conditions from premature death to optimal health—and how they relate to overall health. The Brooklyn Elementary students also learn about the negative impact chemical substances can have on health. The program discusses tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, as well as describes the differences between helpful and potentially harmful substances. Objectives include:

  • Identifying ways to cope with or seek assistance as necessary when confronted with situations involving alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs
  • Describing the cycle of growth and development in humans and other animal species
  • Using goal-setting and decision-making skills to enhance health

Using Chess to Teach Math in Elementary Schools

Using Chess to Teach Math in Elementary Schools

Frank Ho

Founder of Ho Math and Chess™ Learning Centre, Vancouver

Canada certified math teacher

Chess has been heralded as a miracle to help children develop their math skills. How true is it? After my over 10 years of research and teaching of math, I think the answer is not a simple yes or no, rather it depends on how chess instruction is delivered. If chess is delivered as a pure game and taught in a way that it has nothing to do with math then the impact on math learning is minimum. On the other hand, if chess is integrated into math worksheets then the effect is more significant. This is proven from my own teaching observation and also the USA research data collected in Illinois (visit http://www.thechessacademy.org/Math_Data.htm for details.).

A simple minded approach to use chess to teach math in the elementary schools is to have chess lessons in a math class and chess in this case is treated as a separate project or as a part of problem solving set. For those children who do not like to play chess, this could present problems for them since the benefits of playing chess can not be delivered to those who do not necessarily play chess. In this model, math worksheets have very little to do with chess and chess benefits on computation is very minimum.

The more robust approach is truly integrating chess into math curriculum such that when children work on math worksheets, they directly work on math and chess integrated worksheets. The trouble is how to truly mesh or integrate chess into math worksheets? At Ho Math and Chess™, we have successfully in truly integrating chess into math using our invented innovative technologies, namely they are listed as follows:

  1. Geometry Chess Symbols

2.    Ho Math and Chess™ Teaching Set

3.    Frankho Chess Mazes

4.    Frankho IQ Chess Math Brainpower Workout

5.    Math and Chess Integrated Workbooks

Our research and experiment at Ho Math and Chess™ has found out that the marriage of math, chess and IQ math puzzles has significant in improving children’s math ability. The combination of math pure number crunching problems, along with chess puzzles, word problems, and IQ puzzles give children the opportunities to expose an array of problems of pattern, table, diagrams, symbols, equations, and figures. Children tend to get involved more in their thinking process with integrated materials. It is this kind of deep thinking process which truly raise children’s math ability. The truly integrated worksheet of math, chess, IQ puzzles also is more challenged for children. Most of children like integrated worksheet more than pure computational style worksheets.

To get the true benefits of using chess to teach math in elementary school, it requires the key which links math and chess. I have found and discovered the key which links between chess and math and by using the key, I have created over 20 math and chess integrated workbooks. Not only these math and chess integrated workbooks can raise children’s math marks at their day schools, they are also fun to work with and provide entertainment and challenge for children.

MBA Admissions 2011: COME Admission Process for 25 Maha B-schools; FAQs

The Consortium of Management Education (COME) has announced the Common Admission Process (CAP) for the 25 member B schools of Maharashtra. Dr. Apoorva Palkar, President, COME and Director of Singhad Institute of Management and Computer Application, Pune informed MBAUniverse.com on Friday, May 27, 2011, “We are announcing the common admission process for our member institutes. This is a common admission process for member institutes of COME.”

If you are intend to join any of the 25 Maharashtra B schools which are conducting the Common Admission Process, you should be aware of the following information as shared by Dr. Palkar with MBAUniverse.com on Friday, May 27, 2011.

Q: What is COME?

A: COME or the Consortium of Management Education is a forum formed by many leading Mumbai and Pune based private management institutes offering PGDM program to address the concerns created by the AICTE Notification dated December 28, 2010, that curbs the autonomy of management institutes.

Q: Which are the member B schools who are participating in the Common Admission Process?

A: There are 25 B-schools in Maharashtra who are participating in CAP. According to Dr. Palkar, the participating B-schools include, MIT group’s-Maharashtra Academy of Engineering, Vishwakarma Global Business School, Sinhgad group’s-Sinhgad Institute of Business Administration and Research, Sinhgad Institute of BA &CA, MERC-Institute of Management, Matrix Business School, Kirloskar Institute of Advanced Management studies, International Institute of Management Studies, MITCON Business School, Suryadatta Institute of Management, AICAR Business School, IFEEL Institute, Institute of International Business & Research, Alard School of Business Management, Rajiv Gandhi Institute, Guru Nanak Institute of Management Studies, Bharti Vidyapeeth’s Institute of Management studies and Reserach, Mulshi Institute of Business Management, Mangalvedhekar Institute of Management, Apex Group of Institutes, Indus Business School, Chanakya Institute of Management Studies and Research, Kohinoor Management School, Kohinoor Business School, Dr. Bedekar Institute of Management Studies, Abhinav IOM, Mulshi IOBM.

Q: What is the application process for the CAP?

A: Dr. Palkar states that the sale of the application forms will start from June 2, 2011. Application forms will be available online on the COME website, the URL of which is: http://www.comeassociation.org

Q: What are the important dates for the CAP?

A: The important dates for the Common Admission Process are as follows:

The form sale will start from Thursday, June 2, 2011 onwards.

The GD PI processes will be held from Wednesday, June 8, 2011 to Tuesday, June 21, 2011 onwards.

The CAP rounds or the process of allocating the B-schools to the candidates on the basis of their scores in the selection process will commence from Monday, June 27, 2011 onwards.

Q: What is the process to conduct CAP?

A: To apply in the COME Common Admission Process, you have to take any of the given MBA entrance exams, namely CAT, MAT, XAT, ATMA, JMET, MAH CET or any state level CET. The GD and PI processes will be conducted centrally by COME. The GD PI processes will be conducted in the locations of Mumbai, Pune, Nagpur, Aurangabad, Nasik, Jalgaon, Kolhapur, Hyderabad, Delhi, Bengaluru, Bhubaneswar, Indore, and Jaipur. “More centers will be added soon,” informed Dr. Palkar.

Q: What is the background of COME?

A: On December 28, 2010, the AICTE had issued a notification to B schools listing a new set of rules for the B-schools of the country to follow. The circular instructs not only the doing away with important MBA entrance exams, such as the XAT, ATMA or MICAT, but ascertains that only CAT, MAT or any state government-conducted exams (such as the Maharashtra CET) can serve as entry points to B-schools. Another point in the circular which has rubbed many B-schools the wrong way, instructs B-schools to admit students only through a state government operated process. The statutory body has also made it clear that such colleges and institutes cannot set their own fee structures. They can only charge fees approved by a competent state government body.

Stay tuned to MBAUniverse.com for more on the COME Common Admission Process.

TEACHER CREATIVITY AND TEACHER PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCY

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The unending effort to make their lives comfortable and their unquenchable thirst to probe into truth made the people to put forth strenuous trials to bring such an explosion in knowledge in various aspects.  As a result, today man has secured power to create energy, to cultivate land, to conserve water, to control diseases and to tap every source and make its effective use.  This is possible because of requisite interest on knowledge, which can be imparted though education.

Though education was considered as paediocentric, it is a bigger process in which the personality of one person influences on others with a view to modify his behavior in order to bring about his all-round development in thought, feeling and action.  A continuous inter-play or exchange of ideas between the Teacher and the taught, central this, interaction process is the teacher.  While education is essence, the teacher still occupies a prior in essence, the teacher still occupies a priori central role in the learning of a child.

It is evident that the effective and efficient functioning of any institute primarily depends on the quality and commitment of its human resources.  The right attitude towards the profession, involvement in teaching, concern over the profession, aptitude towards teaching zeal and enthusiasm in his profession, mental health of the teacher are essential requisite conditions to prevail in a teacher who could definitely bring success in his school programme.

Many schemes were launched to attain total literacy before the dawn of the millennium.  Vast gulf prevails between the existing rate of literacy of our country and the rate of total literacy. It will be a mirage even after a period of ten years to attain this wish and it may not be cherished.  Education is an apprenticeship of human life and a vital need to result at natural, harmonious and progressive development of child’s latent powers and innate talents.  Thus the basic aim of education is the overall growth of an individual which in its turn enhances the growth of the society.  Hence, the classrooms have assumed a predominant position in achieving the aims and objectives of education.  In this connection this is right time to explore the need to consider the relationship between Creativity and Behaviour Problems among the Teacher community.

Teaching is research out the pupils to make them enrich.  But do the existing teachers is competent teach all the category pupils in the class i.e., dullards, average and gifted individuals.  Teachers’ responsibility does not seize when he has satisfied the average individual in the class, though they are more in numbers.  To quench the thirst of the gifted individual the teacher should keep himself abreast with new techniques and novel strategy which is not an easy job and it is a hard task to successfully achieve.  Still baffling problem for every ideal teacher is to go down to the level of the dullard and the cater the needs of hard-to-reach individual in the class without neglecting them and enabling them to be a drop out from the class and deviant from school, which thrusters the ulterior motive of ‘national literacy mission’.  To successfully shoulder all these responsibilities the Teacher should be creative and competent.  Modern teacher is expected to shoulder the multi-dimensions responsibility to initiate desired learning and outcomes.  To suit the needs of people in this rapid scientific and technological era, the teaching learning transaction should be sensitive and sophisticated. Keeping all these trivial issues in mind the investigator decided to make a probe into the relationship between Creativity and Professional Competency.  The conceptual foundations are presented in the following pages.

CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS

Educational is a natural harmonious development of child’s talent powers and innate talents.  Teacher’s role is pivotal in providing education and making the nation literature.  To make the nation totally literate and to attain ‘educational for all’, to improve educational standards and to increase the level of achievement teacher should not be not only a committed and devoted but also competent and creative.

Creativity:

Creativity is defined as the ability to bring something new into existence, creativity is distinguished by novelty, originality and is unusually inventive.  Creativity was believed to be a heaven’s gift, a rare quality of distinguished individuals with inborn talent.  In the present study an individual who is flexible in thought and action, which can produce novel ideas, express his ideas fluently and long with certain personality traits is said to be creative.

The need for more and better creative thinking and production were felt before mid century, but it was not until after that point in time that scientific research and technological development really got off grant.  Education is not at all an exception to the above fact.  It comprises of a positive science of learning and creative art of teaching.  But in most of the formal teaching is neglected.  As pointed out by Guilford (1985) ‘Teachers always want a correct answer but not clever answer’.

In the past three decades there has been an enormous amount of research which could answer the queries – what is creativity?  What are its dimensions? How to measure and predict them?  What are the ways to foster creativity and what are the characteristics of creative persons?  What are the various creative dimensions find in various professional like poets, artists, musicians, architects etc.  Many efforts are being made by number of researches to identify and to classify the various dimensions of creativity.

Creativity Definitions:

Generally psychologists have tried to define creativity in terms of (a) Mental ability consisting of many component abilities; (b) A capacity to do a thing or produce something of a particular nature and (c) A subjective experience or process having special characteristics.

According to Torrence (1962) ‘Creativity thinking’ is the process of sensing gaps distributing, missing elements, forming ideas or hypotheses concerning them and testing.  These hypotheses subsequently redefined by Torrence (1966) that Creativity as….’ A process of becoming sensitive to problem, deficiencies, gaps in knowledge, missing elements, disharmonious and so on; identifying the difficulty, searching for solutions, making guesses or formulating hypotheses and possibly modifying and retesting them and finally communicating the results.

Wallach and Kogan (1965) viewed creativity as individual’s capacity or ability to generate cognitive associates in quality and with uniquiness.

Whereas Peli (1988) defined ‘Creativity is a process of interacting with the organism to bring out desired learning outcome, ability to generate novel ideas spontaneously, adapting to situations, using the immediate environment for effective communication.  Provoking thought in interacting agency.

From the above definitions creativity can be understood as art of Teaching and act of research.  The definitions of creativity given byTorrence is nothing but an act of research and the definition of Peli implies teaching.

What is Creativity?

          Creativity is a complex term and embraces many aspects.  No single definition would be able to cover all the aspects.  Following are some of the views and definitions given by pioneers in the field.

(a)         Creativity is a mental process whereby an individual produces something uniquely new to himself.

(b)         It is a capacity, which leads to innovations in various fields of knowledge.  It is an aptitude tract and a way of life.

(c)         According to Dr.E.P.Torrence (1960) defined creativity is the process of sensing gaps and discovering missing elements, forming hypotheses or ideas concerning them, testing these hypotheses and communicating their results, probably modifying and resting these hypotheses.

(d)         According to Gagne viewed it as problem-solving.

(e)         Drevdhal (1956) defined creativity is a capacity of persons to produce composition.

(f)          Whereas Peers, Damular and Quackirbush (1960) stated that Creativity is the capacity of the individual to avoid the usual routine conventional way of thinking and doing things and producing a quantity of ideas, which are original, novel and which are workable.

Creativity its Dimensions:

          To measure the Creativity three dimensions like Fluency, Originality, Flexibility are taken into account as shown in the following diagram.

CREATIVITY

                                      Flexibility                  Originality

Fluency

 

Every psychological concept can be analyzed or understood basing on its dimensions.  The concept of creativity can best be explained clearly with the help of its dimensions.  The status of our information regarding the primary dimensions of creativity can perhaps be meaning fully presented by considering its major dimensions.  Psychologists addressed more than two dozen of such dimensions viz., Fluency, Originality, Flexibility, Elaboration, Divergent Thinking, Convergent Thinking, Novelty, Ability to produce greater and total number of ideas, uniqueness, usefulness, independent in judgment, resourceful, independent in thought and action etc.

In addition Javedekar (1963) in his philosophical work mentioned ‘freedom’ openness sportily and progressiveness as dimensions of creativity.  But out of the dimensions mentioned four dimensions – fluency, originality, flexibility and personality traits are very important dimensions for which understanding and measurement of creativity is plausible.

It is hypothesized that ‘fluency’ of thinking would be an important aspect of creativity.  This is a quantitative aspect that has to do with fertility of ideas.  There is a factor of word fluency an ability to produce words each containing a specified letter or combination of letters.  A factor of ‘associational fluency’ is indicated best in a test that requires to examine to produce as many synonyms as he can for a given word in a limited time.  A factor ‘expressional fluency’ is ability to produce phrases and sentences.  The need for rapid juxtaposition of words to meet the requirements of sentence structure seems to be the unique characteristic.  The other factor of fluency is ‘ideational fluency’.  This is the ability to produce ideas to fulfill certain requirements in a limited time.

In the area of creativity one should certainly expect to find a dimension of originality.  It is indicated by the scores of some tests in which the responses are weighed in proportion to their infrequency of occurrence in the population of examinees.  Unusualness of responses is one of the principles of measurement of originality.

In 1950 it is hypothesized that creative thinkers are flexible thinkers.  They readily desert old ways of thinking and strike out in new directions.  There are two factors, which seems to fit into this dimension.  One of these factors has been called ‘spontaneous flexibility’.  It is defined as the ability or disposition to produce a great variety of ideas, with freedom from inertia or from preservation.  The other type of flexibility of thinking is a ‘adaptive flexibility’ for the reason that it facilitates the solution of the problems.  This is shown best in a type of problem that requires a most unusual type of solution.

Measurement of Creativity:

          Since creativity is a psychological construct, measurement of it involves psychometric principles.  The measurement is based on the principles of quantifying the quality.  In no way, it differs from the measurement of certain dimensions.  It is mentioned earlier that of creativity dimensions fluency, originality, flexibility and personality traits are major.  Hence any psychometrican would pay his labour in measuring these four major dimensions.

Fluency can be measured by a composite measure of its four components namely word fluency, associational fluency, expressional fluency, and ideational fluency.  Because of the word fluency is ability to produce words each containing a specific letter or combination of letters, subjects may be asked to produced words with specific letters or combination of letter.

Originality can be measured by tests in which items call for remote associations or relationships, remote either in time or in a logical sense.

In contrast the word ‘fluency’, where only letter requirements are to be observed, measurement of associational fluency involves a requirement of meaning for the words given.  Expressional fluency is best measure by a test calling for the production of phrases and sentences.  A test of ideational fluency may ask examinees to name objects that are hard, white a edible or to give various uses of a common brick, or to give appropriate titles for given story plot.  Flexibility can be measure by a composite measure of its two factors namely spontaneous flexibility and adaptive flexibility.  In tests of spontaneous flexibility, the subject shows his freedom to roam about in his thinking even when it is not necessary for him to do so.  In naming uses of brick is the jump readily from one category of response to another.  Rigid thinkers, on the other hand, tend to stay within one or two categories of responses.  Adaptive flexibility can be measured best in type of problem that requires a most unusual type of solution.  The problem may appear to be soluble by means of more familiar or conventional methods, but these methods will not work.

As Guilford (1950) noted ‘the development of scoring procedure for tests of creativity presents some unusual problems especially between subjective and objective scoring methods.  Further he suggested that creativity can be measured with the help of rating scales.

Professional Competency:

Though Teacher Professional Competency has been recognized as an important component of Teaching-learning process related, little efforts are are made to define the term.  A peep into the literature of teacher professional competency as one finds many related terms such as ‘teaching success’, ‘successful teacher’, ‘teaching efficiency’, ‘teacher performance’ and ‘teacher competency’ etc.

As one looks through heap of investigators in this field Barr, A.S. (1961) define ‘one finds various terms used to designate or describe the successful teacher’.  Frequently the word ‘competency’ is used.  One will note to that the terms are sometimes applied to teacher as Teacher Professional Competency and sometimes in the teacher behavior as in the teaching competency.

Donald M.Medly (1982) disclosed that the teacher professional competency as ‘those of knowledge, abilities and beliefs a teacher possesses and bring to – the teaching situation.  Teacher Professional Competency differs from Teacher Performance and Teacher in that it is a stable characteristic of the teacher that does not change appreciably when the teacher moves from the one situation to another.

By this it is evident that the knowledge of subject matter, teaching skills, beliefs and feelings of teachers may be considered as the components of teacher professional competency that an effective teacher is supposed to possess.

Biddle (1964) advocates that ‘disagreement and ambiguity with respect to the description of teacher professional competency are to be expected and cannot entirely be avoided because effective teaching is undoubtedly a relative matter.  The term has been used by some investigators to refer to training process properties of teachers behavior exhibited by teachers and effects produced by teacher.  The same variables have been termed by other investigators as criteria of competency ability to teacher and a host of their terms – ‘teacher success’, teacher professional competency; ‘teacher efficiency’, ‘teacher performance’, ‘teacher effectiveness’ etc., are used synonymously by investigators.

Ryan (1960) states ‘what constitutes effective teaching?  What are the distinguishing characteristics of concept teachers?  Are provocative and recurring questions?  Unfortunately no universal acceptable definite answers can be given to those complex queries….  Embarrassing as it may be for professional educators to recognize, relatively little progress has been made.

Similarly Biddle and Ellena (1964) accepted that nobody know what an effective teacher was.  They said ‘probably no aspect of education has been discussed with greater frequency with as much deep concern or by more educators and citizens, than has that of teacher professional competency…..how to define it, how to identify it, how to measure it, and how to detect and remove obstacles to its achievement….  Findings about the professional competency of teachers are inconclusive and piecemeal and little is presently known for certain about teacher excellence.

Researchers studied Teacher Professional Competency is consists of three components viz., Presage, Process and Product.  Here the presage component refers to throughout processes, training, training aspect and personality factors of the teachers.  The process component refers to the teacher actions or classroom practices and the product component refers to the quality of the products i.e., students produced.

Jangira (1979) stated ‘Teacher Professional Competency has been considered into its three separate components for convenience of profession.  It should not be taken that these components are watertight compartments.  It also flows that there are no clear cut lines to distinguish one component from the other.

Teacher Professional Competency:

  1. Already mentioned earlier on the most commonly employed criteria, to evaluate teacher professional competency are presage, process and product.

Donald M.Medley (1982) identified four types of research designs to guide the researchers, each involving one of the four independent variables – pupils learning outcomes, pupils learning experiences, teacher performance and teacher professional competency.  The four different types of research are: Type ‘L’ research, Type of ‘P’ research, Type ‘C’ research, the dependent variable is measure of teacher performance in implementation of a particular teaching strategy and the independent variables are measures of competencies in the teachers reprehensive and external context variable.  The unit of analysis is teacher.  The purpose of type ‘C” research is to discover what competencies – what knowledge, skills and values – a teacher must process in order to implement a particular teaching model (or) strategy in a particular situation.

It may be noted that the above said four types of researches proposed by Medley (1982) are further refinement of the passage process and product variables of teacher professional competency.  According to Kyriacon and Newson (1982) there are four variables – presage, process, contextual and product.  Context variables related to a whole of other variables which may have an influence on teacher and pupil behavior during lessons.  While the other they are same as those, which are given by Barr (1961).

Mc.Neil and Pophan (1973) tested the criteria of assessing Teacher Professional Competency as student rating, self-ratings, administrators or peer ratings, classroom environment analysis, systematic observations, personal attitude studies, student’s gains and performance tests.  In the present study the research employs composite criteria of presage and process variables of teacher professional competency, the study of these variables done by teacher-evaluation.

Dimensions of Teacher Professional Competency:

Out of many dimensions of Teacher Professional Competency, five dimensions are considered in this study.  They are – (1) Activity based teaching, (2) Child Centered practices, (3) Teaching Learning material and display, (4) Evaluation strategies and remedial teaching and (5) Novel strategies.

Activity based teaching includes concept teaching abilities, illustrations, practical approach etc.  Child centered practices refer to pupil needs, individual differences, interpretations, child participation etc., are included.  Teaching Learning material refers to selection and presentation of teaching learning material preparation, display etc., are included.  Evaluation strategies include remedial measures, construction of test items different types of evaluation etc.  Novel strategies refer to interpretations, teaching strategies creative ideas etc.  The above dimensions and areas of Teacher Professional Competency differently influence the Teacher Professional Competency is the conclusion drawn by most of the researchers in the field of teacher professional competency as shown in the following diagram.

Pictorial presentation of dimensions of

Teacher Professional Competency

Activity based teaching

Novel Strategies                 And hurdles in teaching

 

TEACHER

PROFESSIONAL

COMPETENCY

Evaluation Strategies

And Remedial Teaching                   Child centered Practices

Measurement of Teacher Professional Competency:

According to Barr (1961), there are four approaches to teachers evaluation contributing different ways by different versions; instructions and data gathering devices viz., (1) Evaluation make in terms of the qualities of the person as in personality ratings, (2) Evaluation, which proceed from strategies of teacher behavior; as in the rating of performance in terms of interpersonal qualities of desirable professional characteristics; (3) Evaluation develop from data collected relative to presumed from qualities to teacher professional competency and (4) Evaluation developed from studies of the product.  In the present study the investigator confined to third approach to teacher evaluation i.e., evaluate to develop from the data collected.

Relation between Teacher Creativity

And Teacher Professional Competency:

Realization of educational goals and expectations of ancient and modern educationists and needs of the society are to be accomplished only with teachers with good value behavior and competency in their profession is undoubetedly most important.  B.R.Rao (1989) rightly pointed out that the quality of a teacher is considered to be associated with his values.  Similarly, Dr.D.S.Kothari (1964-66) advocates that ‘of all the different factors, which influence the quality of its contribution to national development, the quality, competency, and character of teachers are undoubtedly the most significant.  Delors Commission (1996) ascertained that it is the teacher whose role can help immensely in the inculcation of values.  The Mudaliar Commission (1952-53) observed that it would not be wrong to say that its teachers make a nation’s great.  This happens when besides being masters in their own disciplines and competent in communicating skills, teachers are also men and women of character. Theoretically this concept may be sound but in practice how the Teacher Creativity in related to Teacher Professional Competency.  To what extent they are related are the questions awaiting answers.

Hence, the present researcher has taken up a piece of research work tool to find out the relationship between Teacher Creativity and Teacher Professional Competency and confined to school education.  The conceptual framework has been presented diagrammatically in the following diagram.

Relationship between Teacher Creativity

and Teacher Professional Competency

Teacher Professional

Teacher Creativity                       Competency

Flexibility                           Activity based Learning

and hurdles in Teaching

Originality                           Child Centered Practices

Fluency                             Teaching Learning

Material display

Evaluation Strategies and

Remedial teaching

Novel Strategies

 

The above diagram shows the relationship between Teacher Creativity and Teacher Professional Competency.  The related available literature is presented in the following chapter.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Man is only the creature that does not have to begin new in every generation, but can take the advantage of the knowledge, which has been accumulated through the centuries.  This fact is of particular interest in research which operates as a continuous function of every closer approximation to the truth.  The investigator can be sure that this problem does not exist in a vacuum and that considerable work has been done already on problems which are directly related to his proposed investigation.  The success of his efforts will depend in no small measure on the extent to which he capitalizes on the advance made by previous researcher.

Kerlinger (1973) gives two main reasons for discussing the general and research literature related to the research problem.  The first of these is to clarify the theoretical rationale of the problem.  A second reason is to tell the reader what researches have not been done on the problem.  The underlying purpose is to locate the present research in the existing body of research on the subject and to point out what it contributes to the subject.

The major purpose of this review of the available literature is to determine the significant facts which are essentially related to the problem under investigation.  For the knowledge emerging from the investigations would enable the investigator to avoid unintentional duplication, as well as it would also provide the understanding and insight for development of a logical frame work for the present problem under investigation.  Moreover, studies that have been done would provide for formulating research hypotheses an indicating what needs to be done will form the basis for the justification of the study under investigation.

In this a glance at the previous investigations in the related areas will evidently through a light and make the path of the investigator illuminated with abundant information.  Previous studies regarding the two components creativity and professional competency are herewith incorporated.  These previous investigations will deliberately help the investigator to pursue his research.

Creativity – Studies Abroad:

Taylor C.W. (1964) has described personality characteristics of creative persons.  They are autonomous, self-sufficient, independent in judgments, more open to the irrational, more stable, more feminine, dominant, self-assertive, complex, more self-accepting, more resourceful, adventurous, more radical, self-controlled, emotionally sensitive, introverted and bold.

Mac.Kinnon D.W., (1963) has given following personality characteristics to creative people.  They are intelligent, original, independent in thought and action, open to experience both of the inner self and the outer world, infusive, aesthetically sensitive and free from crippling restraints.  They have high energy level, a persistent commitment to creative endeavour and a strong sense of destiny, which includes a degree of resoluteness and a measure of egotism.

Mc.Guire, S. (1963) suggests three personality dimensions significant to mental health.  They are (1) relaxed outgoing optimism, (2) Creativity Intelligent autonomy and (3) Self-discipline stability.

Torrence E.P. (1964) found that creative children were often seen by peers as ‘naughty’ and having ‘wild and silly ideas’.

Gatzels J.W., and Jackson P.W. (1962) corroborates that creative characterized by wide ranging interests, sense of homour and emotional stability.

Torrence E.P.(1965) replicated this work eight times and on seven occasions shows similar results.

Guilford, J.P. (1950) in his presidential address to the American Psychological Association emphasized the ‘appalling neglect of the study of creativity’ by indicating that of some 1,21,000 titles indexed in psychological abstracts from its beginning until 1950, only 186 were definitely related to the subject of creativity.

One of the earliest investigations in the modern style into the personality and background of scientists was carried out by Rock 1952.  Twenty biologists, 22 physiologists and 22 social scientists were chosen by panel of experts in their respective fields.  Rock subjected them to long interviews covering their life history, family background, professional and recreational interests, way of thinking etc., as well as to intelligence tests and clinical personality tests which probed their inner preoccupations and attitudes to themselves and world around them, in short their personality structure.

Graham Wallas (1956) gives 4 stages of creative process.  They are preparation, incubation, illuminatin and verification.

One of the striking traits by Getzels and Jackson (1959) among high school students who stand high in divergent thinking tests is a strong sense of humour.

Gouth (1961) Theoretical orientation, as well as original potential and general sophistication.

Judith, L; Mc.Elvain, L.N; Grelwell and R.B.Lewing studied relationship between Creativity and Teacher Variability.  The objective of the study was to find a relation between creativity and teaching competency as well as to find other common characteristics of teachers in comparison to levels of creativity.

Williams (1972) has proposed a model which emphasizes the following kinds of creative pupil behavior; fluent thinking, flexible thinking, original thinking, elaborate thinking, curiosity, risk taking, complexity and imagination.

Mac Kay (1970) used the science research temperament scale in an attempt to isolate those students who would perform better in a ‘discovery’ approach to a science course than an ‘authoritarian’ approach.

Taft, Dewing and Gilchrist (1971) used experiences questionnaire to study people who were both highly creative and highly productive.  These people appeared to have the traits of rapidly changing states of consciousness; intense emotional responses and interests in novelty.

Caspi (1972) devoted much effort to a process of fostering creativity in university students and initiated an alternative teacher training programmes at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem.  In his programme emphasis is placed on promoting a creative teacher personality as well as providing a wide range of experiences aimed at helping the teacher towards a creative approach to his teaching in school.

To facilitate a meaningful link between university and school, Butter (1974) developed a model merging pre-service and in-service of teacher.  The model aims to provide a learning situation conducive to openers to new experiences and ideas, including learning situation in requiring a creative approach from all participants.

Jan Dean, Robert Brown Sarah Young (2009) studied ‘The Possum Story: Reflections of an early childhood drama Teacher’. This paper stems from the commitment of one drama teacher who was prepared to act as a researcher through her efforts to document, and communicate her beliefs and practices to others. It highlights the value of the reflective process as a way of articulating, informing and improving practice, a view supported by Taylor, who states that ‘if teachers can empower themselves to believe in their own capacity to act as researchers, if they can generate faith in their own ability to observe and reflect critically on their work, then they are capable of effecting change in their own educational setting’ (1998, p. 129).

An analysis of these reflections provides insight into the challenges faced by the drama practitioner working with a large group of young children. These include how to determine engaging and relevant child-centred content, how to stimulate the interests of all children in the developing story and cater for their needs, and how to promote creative problem-solving through open and responsive questioning.

In conclusion, this paper provides an illustrative and instructive example of practice that may stimulate others to engage in process drama experiences that respond to children’s interests and provide rich opportunities for children to create, act-out and reflect on significant emergent stories. (Jan Deans, Robert Brown, Sarah Young, University of Melborne, ‘The Possum Stody: Reflections of an early Childhood Drama Teacher’, Australian Journal of Early Child, 2009 (Online Publication).

John P.Myers (2007) Studied ‘Democratizing School Authority: Brazilian Teachers’ Perceptions of the election of principals’.  The objective of the study is the idea of collective decision making in schools has been a popular democratic educational reform model. One of its claims is that participation in school decision making empowers teachers and improves teaching. This research investigates this claim by exploring seven teachers’ experiences with a unique democratic school reform in Porto Alegre, Brazil, the election of principals by teachers, students, parents, and staff. Results showed that the elections reshaped the school authority relations, resulting in greater freedom for teachers to introduce democratic teaching methods, while articulating the school as a democratic institution and teachers as citizens. (John P.Myers, University of Pittsburgh, USA, ‘Democratizing School Authority: Brazilian Teachers’ Perceptions of the election of Principals’, Journal of Teaching and Teacher Education, USA, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pp.952 – 966, May, 2008).

Julie White (2008) studied ‘Sustainable Pedagogy: A Research Narrative about performativity, Teachers and possibility’.  This study disclosed that mostly theoretical paper explores an emerging conceptualization of ‘sustainable pedagogy’.  The development of this concept has drawn upon sustainability education, three interpretations of performativity as well as key concepts of professionalism and creativity.  Sustainable pedagogy involves not only acknowledgement of self and subjectivity, but professional philosophy and classroom practice that keeps fidelity with philosophy and identity.  Importantly, sustainable pedagogy also involves building and sustaining professional community.  Through its inception, an attempt is made to demonstrated that thearers’ work required nourishment and strength and that sustainable pedagogy affords a richer and more complex understanding of teacher identity and professionalism, and that creativity might provide a suitable antidote to the performtivity that unfortunately currently forms much of the broader educational landscape within Australia (Julie White, La Trobe University, Australia, ‘Sustainable Pedagogy: A Research Narrative about Performativity, Teachers and Possibility’, Journal of the International Association for the Advancement of Curriculum Studies, 2008 – TCI-On Line Publication)

Panagiotis Kampylis and others (2009) studied ‘In-service and Prospective Teachers’ Conceptions of Creativity’.  In this study the authors disclosed that Teachers play a crucial role in the development of primary school students’ creative potential in either a positive or a negative way. This paper aims to draw attention to in-service and prospective teachers’ conceptions of creativity and answer three main research questions: “What are the teachers’ conceptions and implicit theories of creativity in general?”, “What are the teachers’ conceptions and implicit theories of creativity in the context of primary education?”, and “How well-trained and equipped do teachers feel to play their key role in the development of students’ creative potential?” A self-report questionnaire was used as an instrument to gather qualitative and quantitative data from 132 Greek in-service and prospective teachers. According to the selected quantitative data we present in this study, the majority of the participants reported that the facilitation of students’ creativity is included in the teachers’ role, but they (teachers themselves) do not feel well-trained and confident enough to realise this particular expectation. The authors conclude that further research is needed in order to: (i) reveal more on teachers’ conceptions on creativity and (ii) understand and classify teachers’ particular needs to facilitate the creative potential of primary school students. (Panagiotis Kampylis, Eleni Berki and Pertti Saariluoma of University of Tampere, ‘In-Service and Prospective Teachers’ Conceptions of Creativity’, Journal of Thinking Skills and Creativity, Finland, Vol.4, Issue 1, Pp.15 – 29, April, 2009 – On-Line Journal).

Kaoru Yamamoto (2005) studied ‘Creativity and Higher Education : A Review’.  The author studied that Abstract  Some recent literature is reviewed to argue that institutions of higher education have made little adjustments to either their admission practices or their curricula to help nurture varied talents among their students. Diversity seems to be lacking throughout the academic community from the undergraduate level to the professional circles. The need for renewed spirit of experimentation and of tolerance of pluralism is pointed out. (Kaoru Yamamoto, Arizona State University, USA, ‘Creativity and Higher Education: A Review’, Journal of Higher Education, ISSN: 1573-174X (Online), Pp.213-225, 2005).

Linda Reichwein Zientek and others (2008) studied ‘Reporting Practices in Quantitative Teacher Education Research: One Look at the Evidence Cited in the AERA Panel Report.  The authors of this article examine the analytic and reporting features of research articles cited in Studying Teacher Education: The Report of the AERA Panel on Research and Teacher Education (Cochran-Smith & Zeichner, 2005) that used quantitative reporting practices. Their purpose was to help to identify reporting practices that can be improved to further the creation of the best possible evidence base for teacher education. Their findings indicate that many study reports lack (a) effect sizes, (b) confidence intervals, and (c) reliability and validity coefficients. One possible solution is for journal editors to emphasize clearly the expectations established in Standards for Reporting on Empirical Social Science Research in AERA Publications -AERA, 2006. (Linda Reichwein Zientek, Mary Margaret Capraro and Robert M.Capraro, Houston State University, Texas, Journal of Educational Research, Texas, Vol.37, No.4, Pp.208-216, 2008).

Creativity Studies in India:

Baquer Mehdi (1970) devised a battery of tests to identify creative talent in the primary and middle school stages.  The battery consists of verbal as well as non-verbal tests of creative thinking.

Passi (1972) developed a battery of creativity tests for higher secondary school children.  The battery consists of verbal and non-verbal tests.

Kaul (1974) developed a test of creativity for children of 14 – 16 years age group.  Ramachandra Chari (1975) developed a test to identify creative children at the school leaving age.  The sub-tests included in (1) Fluency, (2) Flexibility (3) Originality and (4) Elaboration.  Khine (1971) found that the aspect of creativity such as fluency, flexibility, originality of thinking and elaboration remain closer to one another.

Sharma (1971) used the factorial design to study the effect of intelligence selected interests and the socio-culture variables on creativity.  His findings revealed that for both rural and urban boys creative thinking showed progressive trends with intelligence.

Goyal (1974) focused his study on the personality correlates of creativity in secondary school teachers under training.  Findings suggest that highly creative persons do not enter teachers training colleges and highly flexible teacher trainees appear to be more guilt prone and less imaginative.

Joshi (1974) in his study of the intellectually gifted students found that giftedness was an effective contribution to all types of creativity scores.

Gakhar (1975) observed that 1. Creativity and Intelligences are two distinguishable modes of the same intellectual functioning; (2) Personality traits of self-acceptance and self-sufficiency were distinguishing characteristics of girls high on non-verbal creativity.

Jha (1975) probed into the personality profiles of thirty five creative persons, using the centric method, he discovered four factors.  The main factor reflected national optimism, high ego strength, realistic and healthy attitude towards life, and openness to experience, assertive, self-confidence and tendency for self-actualization.

Aaron P.G., Marihal, V.G. and Maltesha A.N. (1969) in their study aimed at finding the significant differences between rural and urban high school pupils of the same socio-economic status do not differ from each other in their educational level, attitudes, creativity and other personality characteristics.  The results indicated that there is no significant difference between creativity scores of rural and urban boys.

Deshmukh (1979) in his study the major findings were generally girls performed better than boys on creativity measures indicating significant sex differences in creativity.  There was moderate positive relationship between creativity and intelligence for various creativity factors.

Singh O.P. (1982), the main findings of his study were (1) the mean creativity score of the urban students was high than that of the rural students; (2) the mean score of science students was higher than that of arts students.

Saxena’s (1972) attempt has been to discover the differences between the over and under achievers with respect to their interests, need patterns, adjustment problems, study habits and personal and other background factors.  Another group of studies has explored the relationship of intelligence, creativity, interest, neuroticism and extraversion with scholastic achievement.

Choudhry (Abstract:1085, III Survey Report, 1983) studied ‘A Study of the Relationship between the Creative Thinking Abilities of Student-Teachers and their Classroom Verbal Behaviour’.  The objectives of the study were: (1) to study the current classroom practices of teacher-trainees and to compare them with established norms; (2) to study the relationship between verbal creative thinking abilities and figural creative thinking abilities; (3) to study the relationship between verbal creative thinking abilities of teacher-trainees and their verbal classroom behavior; (4) to study the relationship between figural creative thinking abilities of teacher-trainees and their verbal classroom behavior, and (5) to predict classroom behavior on the basis of creative thinking abilities, both verbal and figural together.

Some of the important findings drawn that (1) the verbal creative thinking abilities of the teacher-trainees were positively correlated with their figural creative thinking abilities; (2) there was significant relationship between the creative thinking abilities and some of the indices of the classroom verbal behavior; the pattern of relationship between figural creative thinking abilities and the classroom behavior was the same as that between the verbal creative thinking abilities and the classroom behavior; (3) high creative teachers increased pupil’s freedom to participate by praising, accepting and developing their ideas; (4) high creative teachers processed the content and talked more at convergent, divergent and evaluative levels and less at the factual level; (5) in the classes of high creative teachers, pupils also talked less at factual and more at convergent and divergent levels.

Nirpharake, A. (Abstract:1189, III Survey Report, 1983) investigated into ‘Training in Creative Appreciation’.  The major purpose of the investigation was to develop and try out a training programme in creative appreciation.  Creative appreciation was defined as recreating the artist’s vision, involving evaluation against the criteria of relevance, effectiveness and originality.  The investigator developed a special training programme and tried out efficacy in developing creative appreciation.  The major findings of the investigation were: (i) The experimental group showed marked improvement in all aspects of creativity after receiving training over the control group as well as over its own pretest scores.  The control group did not show any significant improvement over its pretest scores.  (ii) Training in creative appreciation was especially effective educationally because it could be adapted to various classroom situations by teachers of languages and fine arts, without having to marshall any extra techniques of creative teaching.

Research (V – Survey of Educational Research, Vol.I, 1988-92) made on relationship between figural creative thinking of the classroom (Choudhary, S.1989); role enactment of home science teachers in teaching, research and extensions for improving the quality of teachers’ performance in these areas (Pande, M. and Chandra, A. 1992); attitude of teachers towards creative learning and teaching in relation to variables like teaching experience, academic discipline, etc. (Mathur, S. 1988);

Professional Competency – Studies Abroad:

Greg Hearn and others (1996) studied ‘Defining Generic Professional Competencies in Australia: Towards a Framework for Professional Development’.  This study examines the extent to which there are competencies which are generic to professions in Australia. The seven professions of accountancy, architecture, human resource management, marketing, social work, and teaching from around Australia were surveyed using an 80-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed by reviewing the literature on professional competencies; work-shopping with representatives of the professional groups with nominal group technique and small group discussion; and using a preliminary study of individuals in four professional groups. A factor analysis, accounting for 51.9 percent of the total variance, extracted nine factors: Problem-solving, Others Orientation, Professional Involvement, Internal Frame of Reference, Emotional Competence, Influencing, Organizational Knowledge, Productivity, and Client Orientation. This study discusses the implications of these results for the education of professionals, for human resource managers involved in the selection, training and development of professionals, and for the transition of professionals to managers. These issues are of increasing importance to human resource managers in their role as developers of organizational capability. (Greg Hearn, Anna Close, Barry Smith and Greg Southey, Queensland University of Technology, Australia, Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, Vol.34, No.1, Pp.44 – 62, 1996).

Robin Jones (1996) studied ‘The Professional Competencies movement and special Education’.  The author disclosed that the teacher competencies movement in Australia is part of the larger national movement which is concerned about competencies statements for all trades and professions. Special educators are not exempt so that professional competencies statements or lists either are, or will be, developed for this profession. In the formulation process several issues and challenges will need to be addressed: the definition of the term “competencies”; the question of generic versus lists re specific disabilities; the purpose(s) of these lists; their dangers and benefits. We would do well to consider these issues now. We should also consider whether such lists or statements can encapsulate the essence of what good special education teaching is about. (Robin, Jone, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Published by Australian Journal of Special Education, Australia, Vol.20, Issue 1, Pp.40 – 48, 1996).

Malm, Birgitte, Lofgren and Horst (2006) In this study, data show that students perceive teacher competence as an integrated whole. Positive evaluations in various areas are highly correlated. However, seven specific teacher competences could be identified. This study has also identified that there are often big differences between classes with regard to teaching and students’ achievement. This study also shows differences between classes in respect of attitudes, self-confidence, conflict handling strategies and teacher competence. Of these, the biggest differences were found to be those related to the seven components of teacher competence.  In testing a causal model we have been able to show that there are high correlations between teacher competence, school attitudes and self-confidence, and that these three factors are significantly related to students’ ways of handling conflict situations (Malm, Birgitte, Lofgren and Horst, ‘Teacher Competency and Students’ Conflict handling strategies’, Research in Education, Australia, November, 2006)

Burriss, Kathleen and Burriss, Larry (2004) studied ‘Competency and Comfort: Teacher Candidates’ Attitudes toward Diversity’. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe teacher candidates’ perceived levels of competency and comfort in teaching diverse student populations. For three semesters, teacher candidates (n = 221) volunteered to complete questionnaires at the beginning of their professional education courses. A second group (n = 242) completed questionnaires as they exited student teaching. Although the majority of teacher candidates have limited professional and life experiences, findings indicate both groups feel both competent and comfortable interacting with diverse populations. (Burriss, Kathleen and Burriss, Larry, ‘Competency and Comfort: Teacher Candidates’ Attitudes toward Diversity’, Journal of Research in Childhood Education, Washington, USA, April 1, 2004).

Moberly, Deborah A.; Conway, Kathleen D.; Girardeau, Cape; Ransdell, Mary (2002) studied ‘Helping Teacher candidates become reflective about their practice (Teacher Educator/Professional Standards)’.  The study disclosed that while teacher education traditionally has focused on curriculum and instruction, assessment and accountability have become just as important. Teacher candidates must be able to document their knowledge and skills, in order to meet state and national teaching standards. Through this documentation process, teacher candidates reflect upon the products of their teaching and learning. Artifacts may range from teaching portfolios, videotapes, creative projects, and conferences, to exams and papers. Reflecting and writing about these artifacts is now a critical developmental process for teacher candidates. (Moberly, Deborah A.; Conway, Kathleen D.; Girardeau, Cape; Ransdell, Mary ,’Helping Teacher candidates become reflective about their practice (Teacher Educator/Professional Standards’, Childhood Education Magazine,New York, Kentakey, USA, March 22, 2002).

Gretchen Mc.Allister and Jacqueline Jordan Irvine (2000) studied ‘Cross Cultural Competency Multicultural Teacher Education’.  The text of the article disclosed that Teachers require support as they face the challenge of effectively teaching diverse students in their classrooms. Teacher-educators have used various methods to foster change in teachers’ thinking, attitudes, and behaviors regarding cultural diversity, but these efforts have produced mixed results because they often focused on content rather the process of cross-cultural learning. The purpose of this review is to examine three process-oriented models that have been used to describe and measure the development of racial identity and cross-cultural competence. These models include Helm’s model of racial identity development, Banks’s Typology of Ethnicity, and Bennett’s Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity. Research using the models revealed insights for multicultural teacher education in assessing readiness to learn, designing effective learning opportunities, and providing appropriate support and challenge for teachers. (Gretchen McAllister and Jacqueline Jordan Irvine, ‘Cross Cultural Competency and Multicultural Teacher Education’, Review of Educational Research, USA, Vol.70, No.1, Pp.3-24, 2000)

Denise Trento De Souza (2008) studied ‘Teacher Professional Development and the Argument of Incompetence’.  According to Author that this work proposes that since the early eighties a specific strategy has gained increasing importance within official Education Programmes in São Paulo (Brazil) addressed to deal with the high rates of pupil repetition and dropout: the concentration on teachers professional development. We argue that this strategy is based on the idea of teacher’s incompetence as the main explanation for educational problems. This idea pervades both the conceptions of the programmes and their proposed actions and practices. The idea of teacher’s incompetence is present in the mainstream literature, and in the formulation and implementation of official Education Programmes, namely Basic Cycle (CB), Basic Cycle in a Single Shift (CB-JU) and Quality School (EP) undertaken by the São Paulo State Secretariat for Education (SSE). This paper presents some details of the fieldwork carried out in the research project on the theme of Teacher Professional Development (TPD), presented as my PhD thesis. It also presents the main conclusions of that work. The fieldwork was based on a qualitative research method in which the perceptions, expectations, and interrelations of the involved teachers, course monitors and policy makers were extracted from a number of interviews and observations. Our analysis demonstrates the presence of what we identify as the “argument of incompetence”. It takes on different forms according to the context and to the group of the individuals involved in the activities of TPD. The core of the “argument of incompetence” follows a linear logic: “we do not have a good quality school only because we lack teachers of professional competence”. The “argument of incompetence” not only undermines the relations among the main participating agents in teacher professional development, namely, policy makers, course monitors and teachers, but it also promotes a mistaken way of thinking about teacher professional development. Mistaken and simplistic as it promotes a conception of TPD that overestimates its possibilities of dealing with chronic and broader issues of low quality of Brazilian Basic Education without taking the necessary action regarding other vital elements such as suitable conditions of work in schools and teacher’s career development.(Denise Trento De Souza, Brazil – Online: www.wwwords.co.uk/EERJ/content/pdfs/6/issue6 3.asp).

David Carr (2006) studied ‘Is Understanding the Professional Knowledge of Teachers a Theory-Practice Problem?  In this study the currently fashionable professional ideal of reflective practice has focused on how good teaching might be informed by theoretical (invariably social scientific) enquiry and has been commonly construed as a matter of the effective application of theory. This paper rejects techniques assumptions underpinning the idea of applied theory, tracing them to confusion between two different sorts of practical deliberation, prognosis and techno. Understanding professional reflection primarily in term of prognosis calls into doubt both the precise role of genuine theoretical studies in professional reflection and the very status as theoretical of the sort of the principled understanding and deliberation required for the wise conduct of education.  (David Carr, Heriot-Watt University, Great Britain, Journal of Philosophy of Education, Vol.29, Issue 3, Pp.311 – 331, 2006)

Darrell M.Hull & Terrill F.Saxon (2009) studied ‘Negotiation of meaning and co-construction of knowledge: An experimental analysis of asynchronous online instruction’.  According to the authors that Variations in group co-construction of knowledge and the extent to which participants engaged in negotiating meaning were directly related to instruction. The authors examined social interaction resulting from controlled variation in instruction using a counter-balanced design in two professional development courses for teachers. Both courses were held at the same time, included the same content with the same instructor, and were held in an asynchronous online format. Twenty-four subjects were randomly assigned to the two courses. Using socio-historical constructivist theory to guide instruction interventions, instruction frequency and questioning were intentionally manipulated during one-half of each course. The variations in instruction were hypothesized to promote negotiation of meaning and co-construction of knowledge within both groups. Transcript analysis using a dependent measure of social interaction was applied to the 782 utterances of the participants. Multiple comparisons revealed significant differences in the dependent measure in portions of the course where modified instructional strategies were implemented. The results show that relatively simple alterations in instructional practice (e.g., increasing instructional statements from once to twice per week and engaging participants in dialogue through open-ended questioning) yields a substantially enhanced learning outcome within this environment. Strong evidence suggests that online learning groups depend heavily on instruction to facilitate negotiation of meaning and co-construction of knowledge. This research raises concerns about whether or not instructors employ instructional strategies that influence social knowledge construction and subsequent learning outcomes from asynchronous online courses. In addition, the study demonstrates the utility of a previously published measure for social interaction in CMC. (Darrell M.Hull, University of North Texas & Terrill F.Saxon, Baylor University, USA, Source: Computers & Education, Vol.52, Issue 3, Pp.624 – 639, ISSN: 0360-1315, Publisher: Elsevier Science Ltd., UK, 2009).

Compton, Lily, K.L. (2009) studied ‘Preparing Language Teachers to Teach Language Online: A look at Skills, Roles, and Responsibilities’.  This paper reviews and critiques an existing skills framework for online language teaching. This critique is followed by an alternative framework for online language teaching skills. This paper also uses a systems view to look at the roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders in an online learning system. Four major recommendations are provided to help language teacher training programs prepare future language teachers for online language teaching. (Compton, Lily, K.L., ‘Preparing Language Teachers to Teach Language Online: A look at Skills, Roles, and Responsibilities’, Journal of Computer Assisted Language Learning, Vol.22, No.1, Pp.73 – 99, -2009, Online Publication by Educational Journal – 824747).

Professional Competency – Studies in India:

Professional Competency, though quite receipt in origin with astonishing rapidity has become almost a catch word.  As the previous investigations are meager the present investigation cannot place many researches here at this juncture.

Kaul, S. (1977) studied ‘Personality factors, Values and Interests among the most accepted and least accepted Secondary School Female Teaches of Mathura District’. The main objectives of the study were – (a) to construct a Teacher Acceptance Scale; (b) to identify Personality factors that differentiated between most accepted and low accepted teachers at Secondary School level; (c) to identify the Values that differentiated most accepted teachers from less accepted teachers; (d) to study the interests that differentiated most accepted teachers from least accepted teachers; (e) to interpret and analyze personality factors, value and interests, which were not common in the most accepted and less accepted teachers.  The findings of the study were: (1) more outgoingness denoted group acceptance. Reservedness promoted group acceptance.  Intelligence promoted group acceptance.  Assertiveness denoted acceptance.  The more conscious, more tender minded and more related were better accepted by their class students; (2) Craft pursuit denoted acceptance.  Interest in the fine arts, science, medicine, agriculture, the outdoors, sports, literatu.

Special education funding in California is causing deficit in school district budgets

School districts are required by federal law to pay for a large portion of special education programs and services.  These programs and services cannot be altered or cut in any way because it is federally mandated, unlike all other programs for the rest of the students. The short explanation is that federal law mandates it, as set forth in the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act  [20 USC 1400 et seq.].  This law, also called IDEA, enumerates the required needs for students with disabilities.  We all agree that students with special needs must be accommodated, additional care is necessary.  However, most of us do not know the details of the funding and spending on this issue.   In addition to the IDEA federal mandate, the State of California also sets forth special education funding apportionment in its Assembly Bill 602 SELPA [AB 602].If you read these codes on its face and believe that the state and federal government will fund the programs as set forth in the requirements, then you’re not alone.  Must of us assume that this mandated federal and state law will come from separate federal and state funds.  Most people who I asked assumed that special education is funded entirely by federal government disability funds.  It does make sense since it is a federally mandated requirement.  The state and federal statutes require schools to provide “free and appropriate public education” for special education students.   Here is the shocking news, local school districts are responsible for this “free and appropriate public education.”  In fact, IDEA section 1400(c)(6) cites that states and local education agencies are responsible for providing the education for students with disabilities, but that the Federal Government will have a role [emphasis added] in assisting the state and local education agencies.  If you sample a school district’s budget, you will find for example [PVPUSD] it receives $5,049M from the state [AB 602] in addition to the federal IDEA grant which is approximately $2M.  However, the actual costs for the special education programs in this district total approximately $22M.  This district has reported a deficit spending for special education in the sum of $12.5M which is almost double the amount it receives in funding from the federal government and state, combined.  This school district has to find and fund $12.5M in excess of the sum provided by the government funding.  How could special education needs add up to such a colossal amount and cause such a deficit for local school districts? In the code, you will find that required programs such as one-on-one aids are mandatory for each qualifying special needs child. Transportation, specialized at-home care and a host of other services are also required under the law.  I asked the California Department of Education why local school districts are not receiving more funding for special education requirements.  I asked how the local special education funding from the state is apportioned.  Becky Robinson of the CDE Special Education Department stated that “all funds, federal or state, must be approved by the governor.”  I checked, she is right.  The Budget Act of 2008-2009 AB 1781 (chapter 268) sets forth the budget for special education as determined by the state budget and the governor. At a time when teachers and administrative staff are being laid off en masse, it is difficult to understand why school districts are forced to spend an additional $12.5M on special education program requirements, when state budget cuts are forcing school districts to cut teachers and programs elsewhere.  $12.5M could solve all of the local budget woes and keep the teaching and administrative staff employed for the benefit of the entire school.  The answer is that special education programs are depleting the school districts’ budgets as administrators make cuts to prioritize the federally mandated programs for special education.  Another item for budget in the statute that I should mention, is the special needs education conflict and dispute resolution.  There are law firms that specialize in representing students with disabilities and negotiate the settlement for district’s alleged failure to comply with the established statutes and regulations under the federally mandated IDEA.  This means that the statutes for special education inherently set forth guidelines for legal action following administrative proceedings should a parent identify a violation of their child’s “free and appropriate public education.” Many school districts have greatly suffered from lawsuits brought by parents who claim that their special needs child’s rights were not met under the code.  Case in point, Porter v. Board of Trustees of Manhattan Beach Unified School District et al., 307 F. 3d 1064 (9th Cir. 2002), 537 U.S. 1194, 123 S. Ct. 1303, 154 L. Ed. 2nd 1029 (2003).

In the case of Porter, the parents of a student, who had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, charged that  Manhattan Beach Unified School District failed to provide their child with a “free appropriate public education.”   This lawsuit resulted in the school district paying over $6.7M to the family of the student.  In addition, as part of the settlement, control of the student’s education was transferred to a Special Master, Ivor Weiner, Ph.D., resulting in the cost of just under $1.1M to pay for the education of the student at the direction of the Special Master.

The problem is that whether or not this school district properly complied with the federally mandated programs and services for this student, the school district was forced to make cuts elsewhere to pay for this legal settlement.   Why has the federal government mandated such broad standards for special education and then leave local school districts to oversee, manage and fund these programs?

Since the subject of budgets and special education is not a topic that people are willing to discuss, reform in this regard is unlikely.  Certainly, special education programs and services are not to blame for this problem.  This problem belongs squarely on the lap of the federal government under the mandated IDEA laws.

Home Schooling Advantages Vs. Disadvantages

Home schooling is an option that is becoming more attractive to parents as time goes on. Schools have become increasingly unstable over the past couple of decades. Children roam the hallways unchecked, textbooks are outdated, violence is prevalent, children are bullied mercilessly, and the quality of education on the whole has greatly diminished.
What options do parents have to combat this downward spiral? Initially, private school was thought to be the answer. As enrollment in private schools soared many parents failed to see a difference between public and private schools. The problems were still the same.
The option of home schooling has been around for a long time; however, until recently it had not been so popular. The idea of home schooling seems like a cure-all to many parents due to the advantages this type of education provides over traditional schools. Children who are home schooled can avoid many of the problems schools have become known for. For one, the environment is less threatening. Children can learn without fearing other students, aggressive or nasty teachers, and be under the constant supervision of parents. In addition, home schooling allows parents to dictate the academic course of their children. Home schooling also allows students to proceed at their own speed. If a child is weak at multiplication and division, a parent can focus lessons on those skills in favor of another skill that the child might grasp rather easily.
Home schooling is also advantageous because it keeps children away from other students that may be corruptive forces. There are many students in school who do not value learning. This is not any fault of the schools; however, it is still a painful reality. These students can lead to the destruction of a stable learning environment. Home schooling keeps children focused on learning and not on avoiding social pressures.

It may sound like the perfect option, but there are many disadvantages of home schooling. First of all, home schooled children are usually less socialized. While schools can sometimes be the breeding ground for poor social behaviors, school is also a place where students learn to interact with others and build social skills. It seems a bit like a catch 22.
In addition, another drawback to home schooling could be implementation of an educational plan. Many parents are not qualified as teachers and may not understand what is necessary to ensure a child has access to the proper curriculum.
Finally, another disadvantage to home schooling is the necessity for parents to take full responsibility for their child’s education. If you choose to home school your child there is no one for you to blame if your child does poorly. The responsibility falls completely on the parent.
There are many advantages and disadvantages to home schooling. Before you begin a home schooling plan make sure you have evaluated your ability to properly instruct your child and provide a quality learning experience. If you do not think you can handle it, you might as well send your child to school but become more involved with his or her education.

Questions to ask yourself when looking for an elementary school

Choosing the right elementary school for your child can seem like a task of mammoth proportions. Combine the painstaking process of sifting through the befuddling range of options with the relentless stream of often unsolicited advice, the process can become quite hectic and confusing. With the burgeoning influx of information and advice, it becomes necessary for parents to determine priorities and create a streamlined process to ensure the right decision is made.

As an example, while a school that provides a luxurious environment may attract you because of its professed comforts for your child, you cannot afford to overlook the school’s teaching ideologies. Similarly, a school with a sound teaching ideology also needs to have a secure and well-guarded school environment to ensure the safety of your child.

What follows is a list of the most important questions that you should get answers to when looking for the right elementary school for your child.

  • Do the school’s location and schedule suit you?

This question is usually the first point of inquiry by parents when evaluating different schools. The school should be at a location that is easily accessible by your car or the transportation services provided by the school.

The school’s schedule is another important factor to take into consideration. A school that starts too early or too late for your schedule could make it problematic choice.

  • How secure are the school infrastructure and environment?

Not only should the school’s premises be well-guarded but the school should also employ strict security policies that assure a safe and well-regulated environment for all of it’s students.

  • What is the student-teacher ratio?

Whereas older kids may be able to learn effectively even when the student-teacher ratio is high, younger students need more individualized attention. It is recommended that the student-teacher ratio from kindergarten to third grade should be up to 22:1 while it could go up to 30:1 for grade four and five.

  • What are the school’s teaching ideologies and methodologies?

It is usually beneficial to opt for a school that has concrete ideologies to guide their teaching process. Elementary schools with clear teaching ideologies can help you assess if their teaching style is beneficial for your child. For instance, some schools lay emphasis on child-directed activities while others focus on teacher-facilitated projects.

  • What are the teachers’ qualifications?

Get to know how qualified the teachers at the school are. This can give you an insight into the quality of education provided at the school.

  • Do teachers attend regular training seminars?

Get to know if teachers update their skills and knowledge through training sessions and seminars conducted by the school or outside institutions.

Taking these basic considerations into account can make choosing the right elementary school for your child a more efficient process. One of Brooklyn’s top elementary schools is the Williamsburg Northside Lower School. It is known for its child-centric approach to elementary education. This Brooklyn elementary school has an emergent curriculum that takes shape according to each child’s individual and constantly evolving interests, ideas and curiosities.

Researching schools such as the elementary school in Brooklyn mentioned above can ensure a rewarding learning experience to your child.To know more about Brooklyn elementary school visit: www.willnorth.org/lower_school/

How to Advance Your Career As a Elementary School Teacher

In recent times, the career ground of elementary school education in the United States has become highly rewarding and the most favored occupation. In past few years, this career option has gained enough recognition and turned out to be one of the few career areas that offer better job prospects and salary that are complemented with solid benefits. In fact, this is one of the few professions that provide you with opportunities to handle important responsibilities like assisting children with educational and emotional development in the beginning of their academic years. These days many elementary school teachers primarily play the role of instructor for small children in several subjects. Adding to this, in some cases, two or more teachers also team up to cover a class.

Functioning as an elementary school teacher, you don’t just educates or teaches children, but perform the important task of making the basics of all the subjects, so that they never face any problem while studying difficult topics in the higher standards. The most important thing that you need to understand is the learning problems faced by the small school students and to offer teaching solutions to overcome from these problems. As a result, this can be only possible if you as an elementary school teacher receive proper training and education. We can certainly say that elementary school teaching is a physically and emotionally demanding occupation that requires a high level of energy. Though the profession has its own rewards, but it also demands skills so that you can perform your role more efficiently.

Now if you are looking forward to making a career as an elementary school teacher, you must be at least a graduate from a well recognized university in a subject which you would like to educate. At a minimum, you must include the completion of a bachelor’s degree. These days, many states of the United States require a specified number of education credits that needs to be earned over the course of study in order to teach in a public school. Though there are some states as well that look for teachers who have earned a master’s degree within a certain amount of time after starting to teach. Nevertheless, in recent times enrolling in a professional development school after bachelor’s degree is also increasingly more popular option.

Apart from all this, you even need to obtain a teaching certification. Today in many states of the United States the licensure is generally granted by the State Board of Education. Ultimately, this licensure can be granted to you by the State Board of Education, if you have passed all the educational requirements and completed a test based on proficiency in basic reading, writing and teaching skills. Though, it is also important to understand that the requirements may even vary by state.

There are many private schools also that do not look or require any certifications. In fact, many private schools are exempt from meeting state licensing standards, although they mostly favor candidates who have a bachelor’s degree in childhood education for elementary school teachers. They generally look for the candidates among recent college graduates. Besides this, many private schools associated with religious institutions desire candidates who share the values that are important to the institution. In addition to this, many private schools even conduct live teaching tests where you as an aspiring teacher will be asked to teach a class of students and based on your teaching process and the quality of teaching grades are given.

At times, you may even have to appear for an interview with the senior school management before you are selected as a teacher. Though, you may keep yourself updated about the elementary school teacher jobs by joining associations like the American Federation of Teachers.

The future prospect for elementary teachers is surely very good. In next few years many job openings are going to boom. The ratio of additional jobs is expected to grow as the demand of teaching jobs in poor and urban schools after a couple of years is also going to increase.

Management Schools – The home of Start-ups

The international business community has its eyes on the youth of India as most of the entrepreneurs are born in this country. The various changes in the working style and system of MNC’s such as flexible working hours, innovative business models, and above all, providing equal opportunities have contributed in shaping out the new face of India, resulting in a boom in the start-up market.

Before looking up to other aspects, let’s find out that how did the wave of entrepreneurship start in the Indian market. To find the answer to this question, we must have a look into the history of India of 90’s. After the end of the “License Raj era” in 1991, a breakthrough from government contacts, licenses, and bureaucratic stronghold was observed in the aspect of functional ambition. The current entrepreneurship trend, entered its embryonic stage after the rise of Information and Communication technology.

These are some of the famous entrepreneurs emanating from top Indian colleges. Verghese Kurien, the founder of Amul; Kalanithi Maran, the founder of Sun Group; Naina Lal Kidwai, the founder of HSBC India; Indira Nooyi, the founder of Pepsi Group; Kiran Mazumdar Shaw, the founder of Biocon; Sachin Bansal and Binny Bansal, the founders of Flipkart; Chanda Kochar, the founder of ICICI Bank. They have studied in some of the top management colleges in India and have always been at the forefront of innovation. Their story is both inspiring and encouraging for the students.

The companies like Lakme have already entered their names in the history of entrepreneurship world. The amazing fact is to understand that what has put them in the same pedestal was definitely an enormous amount of fire in their bellies.

IIM Indore

These Start-Ups have had the flawless supply of money through investments from the companies like Symantec, Logitech, National Semiconductor, Sun Microsystems, Hewlett Packard, and Intuit. Along with the pass-outs of IITs, IIMs, NIFTs, and other top business school in India is IIM Indore, the involvement of such brains has rushed the economy to achieve amazing heights in the stock market. Even several colleges of entrepreneurship in India are busy in grooming students and busy in encouraging student entrepreneurship. This list of colleges is comprises of prestigious institutions like Indian Institute of Entrepreneurship, Infinity Business School, Adianta School of Leadership And Innovation, and much more.

In fact, entrepreneurship in India has seen the growth of 300%, leaving behind China, the great rival of our country. According to “Your Story report,” there has been a rise in the Indian Start-Ups, by as much as $1.7 billion from investors in the present year itself. There has been a unilateral growth, and especially in the eCommerce business. The NASSCOM 2014 report has stated that a number of technology startups have tripled consistently round the year. An interesting fact to understand is that two-thirds of Indian entrepreneurs are less than 30 years of age. Moreover, the major areas of interest of technology entrepreneurs include retail, SMAC (social, mobility, analytics, and cloud), and health care.

With so many opportunities, let’s get inspired by innovation and true talent so as to contribute to the existing rise of entrepreneurship in India.

Teacher Resources: Primary Teacher Training Certificate Courses In India

A teacher can motivate or demoralize a student; it depends on how the teacher conducts himself in class, the attitude he / she bears towards students, the scruples and principles that he upholds and propagates through his / her daily activities in class and outside. The teachers get young impressionable minds which they can influence easily and this is a major responsibility not to be taken lightly. To truly appreciate the duties and obligations of a teacher one must be adequately trained for the job.

Only trained teachers can ensure the proper development of the children entrusted to them. A teacher becomes an expert in the job only after years of training and experience. A teacher has to face many challenges and perform many tasks in classroom and at school. A good teacher training course at a recognized and affiliated institute ensures that the teacher aspirant is up to the task post certification.

Since the needs of the primary students are different from the secondary students, the primary teachers and secondary teachers are required to take up different teacher’s training courses.

Online teacher Resources:Qualifications for Teacher Training Courses

Pre Primary and Primary school teachers have to pass 12th standard with at least 50% marks aggregate. In addition to the academic records, the personal aptitude and skills are also important.

To join Secondary and Senior Secondary Teacher Training course, the candidates must have a post graduate degree in the subject they wish to teach in.

Primary Teacher’s training is even more important as elementary education plays a very important role in a person’s life. As they need to take care of the emotional needs along with developing the cognitive skills of the students primary Teacher’s training is regarded as essential. Because of theses reasons Primary Teacher’s training (PTT) is made compulsory in various states for appointment as primary teachers.

District Institute of Education & Training, ( Buniadi Shiksha Bhawan) Tirap Changlang 792120

Arujakiya Islamia Teacher’s Training College  PO. Phulwarisharif Patna 801505

Primary Teachers Education College  P.O. Konbir Naotoli Gumla Dt. 835229

St. Teresa’s Primary Teacher Education College  PO. Bettiah

Primary Teachers Education College  Gurwa, PO. Sitagarha Dist. Hazaribagh 825301

SPG Women’s Primary Teacher’s Education College  G.E.L. Church Compound PO. Church Road Ranchi 834001

Ursuline Primary Teachers Education College  P.O. & Dist. Lohardaga 835302

Carmel TeachersTraining Institute  P.O. Pakyond East Sikkim 737106

District Institute of Education & Training  Tathangchen, Edn. Deptt. Govt. of Sikkim Raj Bhawan Gangtok 737103

Banipur Govt. Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  Unit II, PO Banipur Distt. North 24 Paraganas 743233

Belakoba Govt. Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  Prasanna Nagar Distt. Jalpaiguri 735153

Berhampur Govt. Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  P.O. Berhampur Murshidabad Distt. 742101

Bibhuti Bhusan Govt. Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  P.O. Ghatbour Via-Bongaon North 24 Parganas Distt. 743235

Dharmada Government Primary Teachers Training Institute  PO Dharmada Distt. Nadia 741138

District Institute of Education & Training  P.O. Chhandar, Bankura Dt.

Govt. Primary T.T. Institute  44/1 Saheed Nalini Bagchi Road P.O. Berhampur, Murshidabad 742101

Govt. Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  Near Rail Gumti Cooch Behar Distt. 736101

Jalpaiguri Govt. Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  Shilpasamitipura Jalpaiguri Dt 735101

Kalimpong Govt. Primary Teacher’s Training  Institute PO. Kelomal Midnapore Dt. 721627

MD. Bazar Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  P.O. Md. Bazar Birbhum Distt. 731132

Prajnananda Govt. Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  P.O. Bara Jagulia, Nadia Dist. 741221

Ramakrishan Mission Ashram Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  P.O. Sargachhi Ashram Murshidabad Dt. 742134

Ramakrishna Mission Ashram Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  Unit II, P.O. Sarisha South 24 Parganas Distt. 743368

Ramakrishna Mission Boy’s Home Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  PO Rahara Distt. North 24 Paraganas 743186

Sabrakone Govt. Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  PO Sabrakone Distt. Bankura 722149

Saroj Nalini Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  23/1, Ballygunge Station Road Kolkata 700019

United Missionary Primary Teachers Training College  1, Ballygunge Circular Road Calcutta 700019

Special Education, Public School Law & Educational Laws and Policies, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis

William Alan Kritsonis, PhD

Professor

Public School Law & Educational Laws and Policies

FAPE

 

INTRODUCTION

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the law that provides your child with the right to a free, appropriate public education (FAPE). The purpose of the IDEA is “to ensure that all children with disabilities have available to them a free appropriate public education that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs and prepare them for further education, employment, and independent living…” 20 U.S.C. 1400(d) (Wrightslaw: Special Education Law, 2nd Edition, page 20). The Board of Education v. Rowley case is significant because it established the principle that school districts are not required to maximize the potential of a child but provide some educational benefit to the child and how courts would examine future disputes under IDEA (Walsh, Kemerer, and Maniotis, 2005).

Case One

United States Supreme Court

BOARD OF EDUCATION OF THE HENDRICK HUDSON CENTRAL SCHOOL DISTRICT, WESTCHESTER COUNTY,

v.

AMY ROWLEY, by her parents, ROWLEY et al.

No. 80 – 1002

LITIGANTS

Plaintiffs – Petitioners: Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District, Westchester County, et al.

Defendant – Respondent: Amy Rowley, by her parents, Rowley, et., al.

BACKGROUND

The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (IDEA), provides federal money to assist state and local agencies in educating handicapped children, and federally fund States in compliance with extensive goals and procedures. The Act represents an ambitious federal effort to promote the education of handicapped children, and was passed in response to Congress’ perception that a majority of handicapped in the United States “were either totally excluded from schools or [were] sitting idly in regular classrooms awaiting the time when they were old enough to ‘drop out.'” The Acts evolution and major provisions shed light on the question of statutory interpretation which is at the heart of this case.

 

Congress first addressed the problem of education the handicapped in 1966 when it amended the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 to establish a grant program “for the purpose of assisting the States in the initiation, expansion, and improvement of programs and projects for the education of handicapped children. That program was repealed in 1970 by the Education for the Handicapped Act, Pub. L. No. 91-230, 84 Star, 175, Part B of which established a grant program similar in purpose to the repealed legislation. Neither the 1966 nor 1970 legislation contained specific guidelines for state use of the grant money; both were aimed primarily at stimulating the States to develop educational resources and to train personnel for educating the handicapped.

Dissatisfied with the progress being made under these earlier enactments, and spurred by two district court decisions holding that handicapped children should be given access to a public education, Congress in 1974 greatly increased federal funding for education of the handicapped and for the first time required recipient States to adopt “a goal of providing full educational opportunities to all handicapped children.” Pub. L. 93-380, 88 Stat. 579, 583 (1974) (the 1974 statue). The 1974 statute was recognized as an interim measure only, adopted “in order to give the Congress an additional year in which to study what if any additional Federal assistance [was] required to enable the States to meet the needs of handicapped children.” H.R. Rep. No. 94-332, supra, p.4. The ensuing year of study produced the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975.

In order to qualify for federal financial assistance under the Act, a State must demonstrate that it “has in effect a policy that assures all handicapped children the right to a free appropriate public education.” 20 U.S.C. 1412(1). The “free appropriate public education” required by the Act is tailored to the unique needs of the handicapped child by means of an ‘individualized educational program” (IEP). In addition to the state plan and the IEP already described, the Act imposes extensive procedural requirements upon State receiving federal funds under its provisions. Parents or guardians of handicapped children must be notified of any proposed change in “the identification, evaluation, or educational placement of the child or the provision of a free appropriate public education to the child,” and must be permitted to being a complaint about “any matter relating to” such evaluation and education. 1415(b)(1)(D) and (E).6 Complaints brought by parents or guardians must be resolved at “an impartial due process hearing,” and appeal to the State educational agency must be provided if the initial hearing is held at the local or regional level. Thus, although the Act leaves to the States the primary responsibility for developing and executing educational programs for handicapped children, it imposes significant requirements to be followed in the discharge of that responsibility. Compliance is assured by provisions permitting the withholding of federal funds upon determination that a participating state or local agency has failed to satisfy the requirements of the Act, 1414(b)(A), 1416, and by the provision for judicial review. At present, all States except New Mexico receive federal funds under the portions of the Act at issue today.

FACTS

 

Amy Rowley is a deaf student in New York.  Amy has minimal residual hearing and is an excellent lipreader.  During the year before she started attending Furnace Woods School, Amy’s parents and school administrators met and decided to place her in a regular kindergarten classroom to determine what supplemental services would be necessary to her education.  Several members of the administration took a course in sign-language interpretation, and a teletype machine was installed in the principal’s office to facilitate communication with her parents who are also deaf.  After Amy was placed temporarily in the regular classroom, it was determined that she should stay in that class, but be provided with an FM hearing aid to amplify words.  Amy successfully finished her kindergarten year.

Before Amy entered first grade, an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) was prepared, which provided that Amy should continue to receive her education in the regular classroom and use the FM hearing aid, she should also receive instruction from a tutor for the deaf for one hour each day and from a speech therapist for three hours each week.  The Rowleys agreed with parts of this plan, but insisted that Amy also be provided a qualified sign-language interpreter in all of her academic classes instead of the assistance proposed in other parts of the IEP.

An interpreter had been placed in Amy’s kindergarten class for a 2-week experimental period, but the interpreter had reported that Amy did not need his services at that time.  The same conclusion was reached by the school for Amy’s first grade year.  An independent examiner also agreed with the administrators’ determination that an interpreter was not necessary because Amy was achieving educationally, academically, and socially without such assistance.  Amy performs better than the average child in her class and is advancing easily from grade to grade.  However, she understands less of what goes on in the class than she could if she were not deaf and so she is not learning as much, or performing as well academically, as she would without her handicap.

DECISION

The Court stated that a “free appropriate public education” is one which consists of educational instruction specially designed to meet the unique needs of the handicapped child, supported by such services as are necessary to permit the child “to benefit” from the instruction.  If personalized instruction is being provided with sufficient supportive services to allow the child to benefit from the instruction, and the other items on the definitional checklist are satisfied, the child is receiving a “free public education.”  Absent in the statute is any substantive standard prescribing the level of education to be accorded handicapped children.

“By passing the Act, Congress sought primarily to make public education available to handicapped children.  But in seeking to provide such access to public education, Congress did not impose upon the States any greater substantive educational standard than would be necessary to make such access meaningful.”  Board of Education v. Rowley, 458 U.S. 176 at 192.  The Court says the intent of the act was more to open the

Higgins, Green, Reece

door of pubic education than to guarantee the level of education once inside.  The Court further states that whatever Congress meant by an “appropriate” education, it did not mean a potential-maximizing education.  It did not mean the State had to provide specialized services to maximize each child’s potential “commensurate with the opportunity provided other children.”  The basic floor of opportunity provided by the Act is access to specialized instruction and related services which are individually designed to provide educational benefit to the handicapped child.

DICTA

Implicit in the congressional purpose of providing access to a “free appropriate public education” is the requirement that the education to which access is provided be sufficient to confer some educational benefit upon the handicapped child. It would do little good for Congress to spend millions of dollars in providing access to public education only to have the handicapped child receive no benefit from that education. The statutory definition of “free appropriate public education,” in addition to requiring that States provide each child with “specially designed instruction,” expressly requires the provision of “such . . . supportive services . . . as may be required to assist a handicapped child to benefit from special education.” 1401(17) (emphasis added). We therefore conclude that the “basic floor of opportunity” provided by the Act consists of access to specialized instruction and related services which are individually designed to provide educational benefit to the handicapped child.

IMPLICATIONS

The determination of when handicapped children are receiving sufficient educational benefits to satisfy the requirements of the Act presents a more difficult problem. The Act requires participating States to educate a wide spectrum of handicapped children, from the marginally hearing-impaired to the profoundly retarded palsied. It is clear that the benefits obtainable by children at one end of the spectrum will differ dramatically form those obtainable by children at the other end, with infinite variations in between. One child may have little difficulty competing successfully in an academic setting with nonhandicapped children while another child may encounter great difficulty in acquiring even the most basic of self-maintenance skills. We do not attempt today to establish any one test for determining the adequacy of educational benefits conferred upon all children covered by the Act. Because in this case we are presented with a handicapped child who is receiving substantial specialized instruction and related services, and who is performing above average in the regular classrooms of a public school system, we confine our analysis to the situation.

PUBLICE SCHOOL LAW

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

 

LEAST RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT

INTRODUCTION

An important provision of Public Law 94-142 (IDEA) is that all handicapped students be educated in the least restrictive environment (LRE) (Heron & Skinner, 1981).  Federal law expresses a strong preference for placing the child with disabilities in the setting in which that child would be served if there were no disability (Walsh, Kemerer, and Maniotis, 2005). However, these requirements continue to generate complex and interesting questions from the field. In particular, this report focuses on questions that have been raised about the relationship of IDEA’s LRE requirements to “inclusion.”  If the goal of IDEA is to mainstream students with disabilities, despite efforts made from administrators, specialists, and staff, how can this be achievable if the child has not made academic progress in the regular classroom?

Case One

United States Court of Appeals,

Fourth Circuit.

950 F.2d. 156

18 IDELR 350

Shannon CARTER, a minor, by and through her father, and next friend, Emory D. Carter, et al., Plaintiffs-Appellee,

v.

FLORENCE COUNTY SCHOOL DISTRICT FOUR: Ernest K. NICHOLSON, Superintendent, in his official capacity; SCHOOL BOARD MEMBERS; Bennie ANDERSON, Chairman; Monroe FRIDAY, Jack ODOM; Elrita BACOTE; T.R. GREEN; James W. HICKS, in their official capacity

No. 91 – 1047

LITIGANTS

Plaintiffs – Appellees:    Mark Hartmann, et al.

Defendant – Appellant: Florence County School District Four, et., al.

BACKGROUND

Mark Hartmann is an eleven year old child with autism.  Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by significant deficiencies in communication skills, social interaction, and motor control.  Mark is not able to speak and has severed problems with fine motor coordination.  Mark’s ability to write is limited.  He types on a keyboard but can only consistently type a few words such as “is” and “at”.  Mark has had episodes of

 

Loud screeching and other disruptive conduct; including, hitting, pinching, kicking, biting, and removing his clothing.  The school district proposed removing Mark from the regular classroom and place him in a class structured for children with autism.  However, he would be integrated for art, music, physical education, library, and recess.  Mark would be allowed to rejoin the regular education setting as he demonstrated an improved ability to handle it.  The Hartmanns refused to approve the IEP, claiming that it failed to comply with the mainstreaming provision of the IDEA, which states that “to the maximum extent appropriate,” disabled children should be educated with children who are not handicapped. 20 U.S.C. § 1412(5)(B). The county initiated due process proceedings, 20 U.S.C. § 1415(b), and on December 14, 1994, the local hearing officer upheld the May 1994 IEP. She found that Mark’s behavior was disruptive and that despite the “enthusiastic” efforts of the county, he had obtained no academic benefit from the regular education classroom. On May 3, 1995, the state review officer affirmed the decision, adopting both the hearing officer’s findings and her legal analysis. The Hartmanns then challenged the hearing officer’s decision in federal court.

While the administrative process continued, Mark entered third grade in the regular education classroom at Ashburn. In December of that year, the Hartmanns withdrew Mark from Ashburn. Mark and his mother moved to Montgomery County, Virginia, to permit the Hartmanns to enroll Mark in public school there. Mark was placed in the regular third-grade classroom for the remainder of that year as well as the next.

The district court reversed the hearing officer’s decision. The court rejected the administrative findings and concluded that Mark could receive significant educational benefit in a regular classroom and that “the Board simply did not take enough appropriate steps to try to include Mark in a regular class.” The court made little of the testimony of Mark’s Loudoun County instructors, and instead relied heavily on its reading of Mark’s experience in Illinois and Montgomery County. While the hearing officer had addressed Mark’s conduct in detail, the court stated that “given the strong presumption for inclusion under the IDEA, disruptive behavior should not be a significant factor in determining the appropriate educational placement for a disabled child.”

FACTS

Mark spent his pre-school years in various programs for disabled children. In kindergarten, he spent half his time in a self-contained program for autistic children and half in a regular education classroom at Butterfield Elementary in Lombard, Illinois. Upon entering first grade, Mark received speech and occupational therapy one-on-one, but was otherwise included in the regular classroom at Butterfield full-time with an aide to assist him.

After Mark’s first-grade year, the Hartmanns moved to Loudoun County, Virginia, where they enrolled Mark at Ashburn Elementary for the 1993-1994 school year. Based on Mark’s individualized education program (IEP) from Illinois, the school placed Mark in a regular education classroom. To facilitate Mark’s inclusion, Loudoun officials carefully selected his teacher, hired a full-time aide to assist him, and put him in a smaller class with more independent children. Mark’s teacher, Diane Johnson, read extensively about

 

  1. autism, and both Johnson and Mark’s aide, Suz Leitner, received training in facilitated communication, a special communication technique used with autistic children. Mark received five hours per week of speech and language therapy with a qualified specialist,   Carolyn Clement. Halfway through the year, Virginia McCullough, a special education teacher, was assigned to provide Mark with three hours of instruction a week and to advise Mark’s teacher and aide.

Mary Kearney, the Loudoun County Director of Special Education, personally worked with Mark’s IEP team, which consisted of Johnson, Leitner, Clement, and Laurie McDonald, the principal of Ashburn. Kearney provided in-service training for the Ashburn staff on autism and inclusion of disabled children in the regular classroom. Johnson, Leitner, Clement, and McDonald also attended a seminar on inclusion held by the Virginia Council for Administrators of Special Education. Mark’s IEP team also received assistance from educational consultants Jamie Ruppmann and Gail Mayfield, and Johnson conferred with additional specialists whose names were provided to her by the Hartmanns and the school. Mark’s curriculum was continually modified to ensure that it was properly adapted to his needs and abilities.

Frank Johnson, supervisor of the county’s program for autistic children, formally joined the IEP team in January, but provided assistance throughout the year in managing Mark’s behavior. Mark engaged in daily episodes of loud screeching and other disruptive conduct such as hitting, pinching, kicking, biting, and removing his clothing. These outbursts not only required Diane Johnson and Leitner to calm Mark and redirect him, but also consumed the additional time necessary to get the rest of the children back on task after the distraction.

Despite these efforts, by the end of the year Mark’s IEP team concluded that he was making no academic progress in the regular classroom. In Mark’s May 1994 IEP, the team therefore proposed to place Mark in a class specifically structured for autistic children at Leesburg Elementary. Leesburg is a regular elementary school which houses the autism class in order to facilitate interaction between the autistic children and students who are not handicapped. The Leesburg class would have included five autistic students working with a special education teacher and at least one full-time aide. Under the May IEP, Mark would have received only academic instruction and speech in the self-contained classroom, while joining a regular class for art, music, physical education, library, and recess. The Leesburg program also would have permitted Mark to increase the portion of his instruction received in a regular education setting as he demonstrated an improved ability to handle it.

DECISION

To demand more than this from regular education personnel would essentially require them to become special education teachers trained in the full panoply of disabilities that their students might have. Virginia law does not require this, nor does the IDEA. First, such a requirement would fall afoul of Rowley’s admonition that the IDEA does not guarantee the ideal educational opportunity for every disabled child. Furthermore, when the IDEA was passed, Congress’ intention was not that the Act displace the primacy of

 

States in the field of education, but that States receive funds to assist them in extending their educational systems to the handicapped.” Rowley, 458 U.S. at 208. The IDEA “expressly incorporates State educational standards.” Schimmel v. Spillane, 819 F.2d 477, 484 (4th Cir. 1987). We can think of few steps that would do more to usurp state educational standards and policy than to have federal courts re-write state teaching certification requirements in the guise of applying the IDEA.  In sum, we conclude that Loudoun County’s efforts on behalf of Mark were sufficient to satisfy the IDEA’s mainstreaming directive.

DICTA

The IDEA embodies important principles governing the relationship between local school authorities and a reviewing district court. Although section 1415(e)(2) provides district courts with authority to grant “appropriate” relief based on a preponderance of the evidence, 20 U.S.C. § 1415(e)(2), that section “is by no means an invitation to the courts to substitute their own notions of sound educational policy for those of the school authorities which they review.” Board of Education of Hendrick Hudson Central Sch. Dist. v. Rowley, 458 U.S. 176, 206 (1982).  These principles reflect the IDEA’s recognition that federal courts cannot run local schools. Local educators deserve latitude in determining the individualized education program most appropriate for a disabled child. The IDEA does not deprive these educators of the right to apply their professional judgment. Rather it establishes a “basic floor of opportunity” for every handicapped child. Rowley, 458 U.S. at 201. States must provide specialized instruction and related services “sufficient to confer some educational benefit upon the handicapped child,” id. at 200, but the Act does not require “the furnishing of every special service necessary to maximize each handicapped child’s potential,” id. at 199.

IMPLICATIONS

The IDEA encourages mainstreaming, but only to the extent that it does not prevent a child from receiving educational benefit. The evidence in this case demonstrates that Mark Hartmann was not making academic progress in a regular education classroom despite the provision of adequate supplementary aids and services. Loudoun County properly proposed to place Mark in a partially mainstreamed program which would have addressed the academic deficiencies of his full inclusion program while permitting him to interact with nonhandicapped students to the greatest extent possible. This professional judgment by local educators was deserving of respect. The approval of this educational approach by the local and state administrative officers likewise deserved a deference from the district court which it failed to receive. In rejecting reasonable pedagogical choices and disregarding well-supported administrative findings, the district court assumed an educational mantle which the IDEA did not confer. Accordingly, the judgment must be reversed, and the case remanded with directions to dismiss it.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

SPECIAL EDUCATION

SPECIAL EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION

“Appropriate” education is one that goes beyond the normal school year. If a child will experience severe or substantial regression during the summer months in the absence of a summer program, the handicapped child may be entitled to year round services. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA) passed in 1975, this act provided support to state special education programs to provide free appropriate public education to disabled children. National precedent establishing the tests for determining the need for an extended school year for special needs children.

            For the purpose of this case we will determine if there is sufficient enough evidence of regression to justify requiring the district to provide summer services to the student.

Case One

United States Court of Appeals,

Fifth Circuit

Alamo Heights Independent School District-Plaintiff-Appellants

v.

State Board Of Education, et al., Defendants-Apelles

790 F .d 1153

LITIGANTS

Plaintiff –Appellant: Alamo Heights Independent School District

Defendants – Apelles: State Board of Education

Background

In the summer  1979, when Steven was seven, his mother moved into the Alamo Heights Independent School District. That school year Steven attended a special education program at Cambridge Elementary School. In the late spring of 1980, Mrs. G.

requested that the Alamo Heights Independent School District provide summer services for Steven.

For seven years prior to 1980 the Alamo Heights School District had offered a summer program to all special education students who were moderately or severely handicapped. The decision to offer the program was made on the administrative level, as a matter of district policy, and any moderate to severely handicapped child was eligible to

attend. In the summer of 1980, when Steven would have been eligible for this program, however, the School District changed its policy and offered only a half-day one-month program, without providing transportation. The decision to curtail the summer program was based on its cost and the apparent lack of interest on the part of teachers and eligible students in previous years.

No students from Steven’s multiply handicapped class took advantage of the 1980 summer program, nor did Steven. It is not clear, however, whether Mrs. G. was not told of the program or whether the lack of transportation and the hours made it impossible for Steven to attend. During that summer, Steven stayed with a baby-sitter who had no training in special education. There was testimony that Steven’s behavior deteriorated that summer and that he suffered regression in his ability to stand, point, and feed himself.

The next year Mrs. G.’s request for summer services and transportation was refused by school officials, without consultation with Steven’s Admission, Review and Dismissal (ARD) Committee or with his teacher. The only caretaker Mrs. G. could find for Steven lived a mile outside of the district boundary, and even during the school year, the School District would not provide out-of-district transportation.

Mrs. G. then employed legal counsel and appealed the denial of services to the Texas Education Agency. The administrative hearing officer issued an interim order requesting a meeting of Steven’s ARD Committee to consider the issue of summer services. The ARD Committee met and agreed only to provide some adaptive equipment for Steven and to request consultative services from the state during the summer of 1981. On August 21, 1981, the hearing officer issued a “proposal for decision” in which he found that the School District was required to provide summer services and related

transportation services during 1981, and also required the School District to make a decision regarding summer services for 1982 by March of 1982.

Facts

Without some kind of continuous, structured educational program during the evidence to conclude that Steven G. would definitely suffer severe regression after a summer without such a program, neither can it conclude that he would not and there is evidence that shows that Steven G. has suffered more than the loss of skills in isolated instances, and that he has required recoupment time of more than several weeks after summers without continuous, structured programming. A summer without continuous, structured programming would result in substantial regression of knowledge gained and skills learned, and, given the severity of Steven G.’s handicaps, this regression would be significant.

Decision

Mrs. G.’s efforts to obtain the appropriate provision of free educational services for her son were pursued within the administrative framework set up by the State of Texas pursuant to EAHCA guidelines. The success she achieved in requiring the School District to provide Steven with an appropriate individualized educational placement, including summer services, was obtained through and within the “elaborate, precisely

defined administrative and judicial enforcement system. Because we find that, whether or  denominated due process, the claims upon which Mrs. G. has prevailed are rights granted by the EAHCA, and because the EAHCA contains no provision for attorney’s fees, we agree with the district court that no attorney’s fees are to be awarded under Sec. 1988.

We also find that Mrs. G. is not entitled to attorney’s fees under the Rehabilitation Act. In Smith, the Court stated, “Of course, if a State provided services beyond those required by the [EAHCA], but discriminatorily denied those services to a handicapped child, Section 504 [of the Rehabilitation Act] would remain available as an avenue of relief.”

Mrs. G. asserts that the fact that the School District provided a summer remedial reading program, free of charge, to nonhandicapped children without providing an

analogous free summer program to handicapped children is a clear instance of discrimination on the basis of handicap in violation of Sec. 504.

We do not agree. Under the EAHCA, the School District is required to provide handicapped children with a free, appropriate education geared towards their individual needs. If a handicapped child’s IEP requires summer services under the EAHCA, he is entitled to summer services. The fact that the School District affords some nonhandicapped children remedial help during the summer does not mean that it is required to offer similar remedial summer guidance to handicapped children, irrespective of whether their individual IEP’s provide for structured summer services. The school district’s action in Steven’s case has not been shown to constitute discrimination on the basis of his handicap distinct from the protection afforded under the EAHCA. Hence, Mrs. G. is not entitled to attorney’s fees under 29 U.S.C. Sec. 794a(b), the attorney’s fees provision of the Rehabilitation Act.

Finally, the School District argues that it was denied due process by the procedures employed by the State Board of Education during the administrative stage of this action. It contends that under Helms v. McDaniel, the hearing officer’s initial proposed decision of August 24, 1981 should have been considered the final decision of the case and that the hearing officer’s later adoption of the Commissioner of Education’s decision was a direct violation of Helms. It contends that the failure of the hearing officer to adopt his initial proposed decision as the final decision of the case denied them due process. The School District does not favor us with any authority for the proposition that an adjudicative officer is prohibited by the due process clause from changing his opinion in the course of an orderly procedure. We find the district court did not err in dismissing the School District’s due process claims against the state defendants.

Dicta

The district court carefully phrased its conclusion and, while it did not explicitly state that the educational program offered by the School District did not meet the “some

educational benefit” standard of Rowley, the district court showed that it was aware of that decision and its judgment is therefore tantamount to such a conclusion. Hence, we

hold that the district court applied the appropriate standard to the factual determinations supported by the record. The general injunctive relief granted by the court was

appropriate to ensure that Steven receives the summer programming to which he is entitled under the Act.

With respect to out-of-district transportation for Steven G., the district court found that transportation is included in the definition of “related service” under 20 U.S.C. Sec. 1401(a)(17) and that such transportation does not cease to be a related service simply because a parent requests transportation to a site a short distance beyond the district boundaries.

Implications

The evidence indicates that Todd was receiving benefit from the TISD special education program, and hence, the TISD special education program was an appropriate placement under IDEA. Equally important, the TISD special education program provided Todd with an opportunity to interact with nondisabled peers, and was a less restrictive environment than The Oaks. Thus, regardless of whether Todd extracted any academic benefit from the educational program at The Oaks, Todd’s parents’ unilateral decision to place him there remains their financial responsibility. For these reasons, the decision of the district court is AFFIRMED.

SPECIAL EDUCATION

Professor William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Program in Educational Leadership, PVAMU, The Texas A&M University System

SPECIAL EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION

In order to assure that all children are given a meaningful opportunity to

benefit from public education, the education of children with disabilities is

required to be tailored to the unique needs of the handicapped child by means of an individualized education plan (IEP). As a condition of federal funding, IDEA requires states to provide all children with a “free appropriate public education,” with the statutory term “appropriate” designating education from which the schoolchild obtains some degree of benefit.

This report focuses on parents rights to place their son in a unilateral placement despite the public school program and IEP. The parents by law have the right to request reimbursement for private placement.

Case One

United States Courts of Appeals,

Fifth Circuit

TODD L., Mr. and Mrs. L., Defendant-Appellants,

v.
TEAGUE INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT, et al., Plaintiff-Appellee,

Docket No. No. 92-8427.

LITIGANTS

Plaintiffs-Appellant: Todd L., Mr. and Mrs. L., et.al

Defendant-Appellee: TEAGUE INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT

BACKGROUND

As a condition of federal funding, IDEA requires states to provide all children with a “free appropriate public education,” with the statutory term “appropriate” designating education from which the schoolchild obtains some degree of benefit. IDEA requires that children with disabilities be educated to the maximum extent possible with nondisabled children in the least restrictive environment consistent with their needs, a concept referred to as “mainstreaming.” In order to assure that all children are given a meaningful opportunity to benefit from public education, the education of children with disabilities is required to be tailored to the unique needs of the handicapped child by means of an individualized education plan (IEP).

Complying with IDEA, Todd’s local public school district (the Teague Independent School District, “TISD”), in collaboration with Todd and his parents, developed an IEP for Todd. Consistent with IDEA’s requirement that special education services be tailored to the unique needs of the child, the IEP emphasized one-on-one instruction in specially equipped classrooms, and reduced the length of Todd’s school day from seven hours to two hours. Todd’s school day was reduced not for the convenience of school staff, but in response to Todd’s inability to tolerate a longer school day without becoming unduly frustrated and discouraged, leading to regression rather than academic progress.

The school psychologist specifically found that a shortened school day would be necessary, at least temporarily, to assure that Todd’s inability to tolerate frustration did not lead to his giving up on academics altogether and dropping out of school. Though Todd was educated separately from his nondisabled peers for part of the school day, the school arranged for Todd to have contact with nondisabled peers. The goal of Todd’s four-year IEP was to provide him with a nonthreatening environment in which he could continue to make academic progress while gradually learning to tolerate a lengthened school day and increased stress. The record indicates that the authors of Todd’s IEP fully expected that ultimately Todd would be reintegrated into “the mainstream” of regular classes at the TISD school, and would graduate.

Facts

When Todd’s parents sought reimbursement for the costs of Todd’s institutionalization, the TISD refused on the grounds that Todd had been able to benefit from the TISD program and that The Oaks placement was more restrictive than necessary to provide Todd with educational benefit. Todd’s parents appealed to a special education

hearing officer, who found that Todd’s parents should be reimbursed. The special education hearing officer found that Todd’s parents had established that Todd’s local

public school was an inappropriate placement while The Oaks was an appropriate placement. According to the hearing officer, there was no evidence that Todd had obtained any benefit from special education at the TISD School. Contending that this factual conclusion was clearly erroneous, and that the hearing officer did not take into account the relative restrictiveness of The Oaks and the TISD School’s special education program, the school district appealed the hearing officer’s decision to federal district court.

Although the district court indicated that it gave “due weight” to the decision of the hearing officer, the district court concluded, after reviewing all the evidence from the administrative proceeding and hearing additional evidence, that the TISD public school placement was appropriate, and that The Oaks placement was inappropriate. Therefore, the district court reversed the hearing officer’s decision to grant Todd’s parents reimbursement for the cost of Todd’s institutionalization at The Oaks. Todd’s parents appeal the district court’s decision. We affirm.

Decision

Having decided that the district court did not err in subjecting the hearing officer’s decision to a searching review, it remains only to decide whether the conclusions drawn by the district court were proper. We review de novo, as a mixed question of law and fact, the district court’s decision that the local school’s IEP was appropriate and that the alternative placement was inappropriate under IDEA. Christopher M. v. Corpus Christi Independent Sch. Dist., 933 F.2d 1285, 1289 (5th Cir.1991). We review the district court’s findings of “underlying fact” for clear error. Id. See also Sherri A.D., 975 F.2d at 207. Findings of “underlying fact” include findings that the schoolchild obtained

any benefit from special education services or would be threatened by a longer school day. Christopher M., 933 F.2d at 1289.  If a parent or guardian unilaterally removes a child from the local public school system, the parent or guardian may obtain reimbursement for an alternative placement only if able to demonstrate that the regular school placement was inappropriate, and that the alternative placement was appropriate. School Comm. of Burlington v. Department of Educ., 471 U.S. 359, 373-74, 105 S.Ct. 1996, 2004, 85 L.Ed.2d 385 (1985). If Todd’s IEP in the local public school district was appropriate, then there is no need to inquire further as to the appropriateness of The Oaks’ program.

Under IDEA, an “appropriate” placement is that which enables a child to obtain “some benefit” from the public education he is receiving; not necessarily maximization of his potential. See Rowley, 458 U.S. at 198-200, 102 S.Ct. at 3047. In addition to requiring that the child’s placement be appropriate in the sense of providing some benefit, IDEA mandates that to the fullest extent possible, disabled children be educated with non-disabled children in the least restrictive environment. See 20 U.S.C. § 1412(5); Rowley, 458 U.S. at 202, 102 S.Ct. at 3048; Sherri A.D., 975 F.2d at 206 (“Even in cases in which mainstreaming is not a feasible alternative, there is a statutory preference for serving disabled individuals in the setting which is least restrictive of their liberty and which is near the community in which their families live”). A presumption exists in favor of the local public school district’s plan for educating the child, provided it comports with IDEA. See Tatro v. State of Texas, 703 F.2d 823, 830 (5th Cir.1983). See generally Rowley, 458 U.S. at 207-08, 102 S.Ct. at 3051.

There is ample evidence that Todd received significant benefit from his public school placement. Todd’s teacher and school psychologist both testified that Todd made significant progress academically and behaviorally while in the TISD special education program. Not only did Todd advance in terms of grade level, he also became steadily more able to focus on particular tasks for longer periods without experiencing debilitating frustration. At the same time, the TISD special education program provided Todd with

some opportunity to interact with nondisabled peers, and the opportunity to participate in the affairs of the community in which he lived.

Todd’s one-on-one instruction at TISD was no more restrictive than necessary to assure that he would receive some academic benefit from special education at TISD. The school psychologist testified that while she would have recommended some sort of residential placement had the district not been able to provide Todd with one-on-one

instruction, she would never consider placing a child like Todd at a residential facility as restrictive as The Oaks without first exhausting the full range of less restrictive alternatives. She testified that even though Todd had serious behavior problems, she did not consider him so unruly as to require twenty-four hour supervision in a locked unit. In the school psychologist’s opinion, The Oaks was a placement of last resort.

By contrast to the unambiguous evidence that Todd benefitted from special education at the TISD school, the evidence that Todd benefitted from educational services at The Oaks is equivocal. The evidence Todd’s parents produced to support their claim that Todd benefitted academically from educational programming at The Oaks compares Todd’s performance before he received special education services at the TISD school with Todd’s performance after he was institutionalized. Hence, it is difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain whether the source of the benefit Todd obtained was provided primarily by the TISD school, or by The Oaks. It is uncontroverted that The Oaks’ focus was on behavior management, and that The Oaks devoted only the same or a little more time to Todd’s educational programming than did the TISD school.

Finally, Todd’s placement at The Oaks involved more restrictions on Todd’s liberty than any other potential placement, removed Todd from his home community, and completely precluded him from having any contact with nondisabled peers. There is exceedingly little evidence, other than the hospital’s willingness to admit Todd, that he required such a restrictive environment. Although we can assume, based on Todd’s admission to The Oaks, that a physician

ratified Todd’s parents’ decision to hospitalize their son, the great weight of the evidence indicated that he could not only cope, but thrive, in a less restrictive setting.

Dicta

The evidence indicates that Todd was receiving benefit from the TISD special education program, and hence, the TISD special education program was an appropriate placement under IDEA. Equally important, the TISD special education program provided

Todd with an opportunity to interact with nondisabled peers, and was a less restrictive environment than The Oaks. Thus, regardless of whether Todd extracted any academic benefit from the educational program at The Oaks, Todd’s parents’ unilateral decision to place him there remains their financial responsibility. For these reasons, the decision of the district court is AFFIRMED.

Implications

The district court carefully phrased its conclusion and, while it did not explicitly state that the educational program offered by the School District did not meet the “some educational benefit” standard of Rowley, the district court showed that it was aware of that decision and its judgment is therefore tantamount to such a conclusion. Hence, we hold that the district court applied the appropriate standard to the factual determinations supported by the record. The general injunctive relief granted by the court was appropriate to ensure that Steven receives the summer programming to which he is entitled under the Act.

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis Inducted into the William H. Parker Leadership Academy Hall of Honor (HBCU)

Remarks by Angela Stevens McNeil

July 26th 2008

Good Morning. My name is Angela Stevens McNeil and I have the privilege of introducing the next Hall of Honor Inductee, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis. Dr. Kritsonis was chosen because of his dedication to the educational advancement of Prairie View A&M University students. He earned a Bachelor’s degree in 1969 from Central Washington University in Ellensburg, Washington.  In 1971, he earned his Master’s in Education from Seattle Pacific University.  In 1976, he earned his PhD from the University of Iowa.

Dr. Kritsonis has served and blessed the field of education as a teacher, principal, superintendent of schools, director of student teaching and field experiences, invited guest professor, author, consultant, editor-in-chief, and publisher.  He has also earned tenure as a professor at the highest academic rank at two major universities.

In 2005, Dr. Kritsonis was an Invited Visiting Lecturer at the Oxford Round Table at Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England.  His lecture was entitled theWays of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning.

In 2004, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis was recognized as the Central Washington University Alumni Association Distinguished Alumnus for the College of Education and Professional Studies.

Dr. William Kritsonis is a well respected author of more than 500 articles in professional journals and several books.  In 1983, Dr. Kritsonis founded the NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS. These publications represent a group of highly respected scholarly academic periodicals. In 2004, he established the DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research. The DOCTORAL FORUM is the only refereed journal in America committed to publishing doctoral students while they are enrolled in course work in their doctoral programs. Over 300 articles have been published by doctorate and master’s degree students and most are indexed in ERIC.

Currently, Dr. Kritsonis is a Professor in the PhD Program in Educational Leadership here at Prairie View A&M University.

Dr. William Kritsonis has dedicated himself to the advancement of educational leadership and to the education of students at all levels.  It is my honor to bring him to the stage at this time as a William H. Parker Leadership Academy Hall of Honor Inductee.

Home school versus formal education

The debate among many people is whether homeschooling kids is better than formal education. The former would be fruitful if home school is done the right way. Children adopt a customized curriculum provided by their parents whereas in a private school, they are forced to learn whatever is taught by the teachers. Each child is unique and the style of learning differs from one child to another. Some children are good at grasping information from textbooks and a theory based method would be useful for them but some of them prefer practical method of teaching where it’s easy for them to remember and this kind of an approach is also more interesting to them.
Parents who home school their kids should provide a more pleasing and healthy learning environment for their kids. Apart from academics, children learn to bond with their family, which is an advantage in home school. Good habits can be instilled in them. Apart from concentrating on academics, children have ample time to develop their talents. Everyone learns from each and every task that we do, whether it is routine or a onetime task. Children can go for music classes, swimming, skating etc. They can do well in their academics as well as extracurricular activities whereas there is a time constraint in private schools. Some schools demand children to be more focused on academics than extracurricular activities, as they need more grades.
More often when parents weigh the options of home school and formal education, one major issue is that kids don’t get an opportunity to socialize if parents home school them. At school, children can play together and participate in competitions. It’s easy for them to socialize but peer influence can change the attitude of your kids easily and it’s difficult for parents to know if their kids are being influenced in the right or the wrong way. Children can always interact and get along with other kids who are being homeschooled by their parents. They tend to become more co operative and disciplined. Kids who are homeschooled will get more attention and discussing about their academics and extracurricular activities becomes easy, as children feel more comfortable in such an environment.
Sending your child to a private school is expensive. Course fee, educational trips, projects, cost of resources, transportation are expensive whereas when parents home school they know what exactly their children need and based on that they can buy the required materials. When your kids join the other homeschooled ones, educational trips will be less expensive and sometimes you need pay even a penny. Some people believe that children who are being home schooled will have difficulty in getting college admissions which will lead to less number of career opportunities but that’s not true as most colleges prefer homeschooled children as they are more disciplined and self motivated to learn new things. In home school, every parent struggles to get their children in the right track in the beginning but ultimately they learn how to home school their kids.
Some people require motivation to opt for Home school and choosing the proper home school curriculum for your child. For more information about Home School and Curriculums, please do visit our site – http://www.homeschoolcurriculum.org/

What is homeschooling ?

Self-teaching is the idea of instructing and mentoring kids at home, by folks, mentors and group parts. The idea follows its attaches to religious and good directions at devoted focuses. In the current perspective, Homeschooling has been upheld because of the requirement for a redid learning environment for each tyke. While creating a feasible and significant Homeschooling alternative at International Schooling, we investigated the accompanying with through examination and study:
Understanding the needs of distinctive youngsters : Every youngster needs singular thoughtfulness regarding flourish learning and advancement. A contemporary school environment could possibly have the capacity to give the same. With given space for each exercise, theme and subject on the loose, the onus lies essential on the kid to make up for lost time and adjust. By treating each understudy as an alternate individual, we can ad lib to give deeper and dependable understanding of ideas, hypotheses and basics.
Empowering ‘Critical thinking’ aptitudes : Homeschooling with International Schooling is ascribed towards empowering ‘Result Finding without anyone else present’. Our educational program and course material pushes both Induced and Derived learning. We broaden the freedom to the understudies to touch base at results through their favored methodology. This involves a course structure that gives them revelation, certainty and faith in their capacities and techniques. The last point is to plan balanced people who exceed expectations in ‘Critical thinking’ at varsity levels and later on in their lives.
Succeeding adapting in a more recognizable environment : Research obviously shows that a more favorable learning environment can trigger the learning process and affect speedier and productive learning. Mix of music, feel and parental consultative are a portion of the parameters that have demonstrated immediate connection with learning and comprehension. Global Schooling enables this learning process by amalgamating a lot of people such parameters into its Homeschooling.
Positive intercession of folks in the learning procedure : Our Homeschooling advertises positive reconciliation of the capacities of folks and their kids. Such incorporation advertises talks and helpful contentions, in this manner invigorating the ‘Adapting by Discovery and Discussion’ model. Folks are given clear rules on the most proficient method to push fascinating and compelling discourses with their wards. Also, we expect to find better worldwide practices through guardian gatherings and online journals.
Assistance of committed and altered learning : Pace, Mode and Method of learning have an immediate effect on the adequacy of learning. Great understudies deal with these three greatly improved than generally others. An altered equalization of these is instrumental in making the International Schooling Homeschooling a superior and sounder alternative.

How to Become an Elementary School Teacher

If you’ve thought about becoming a teacher, one of the most important decisions you may have to make is which level of teaching suits you the best. Elementary, secondary, and post-secondary teaching all have very different characteristics and requirements, and shifting tracks once you get started would be likely to require that you go back to school. Therefore, your career path may be smoother if you choose carefully at the beginning, and focus your educational preparation accordingly.

Suppose you are interested in teaching very young children. In that case, you may want to be aware of the special characteristics that distinguish elementary school teachers, and how you would become an elementary school teacher yourself.

Distinguishing Characteristics of Elementary School Teachers

There are some characteristics that distinguish good teachers at all levels: a solid understanding of the subject matter; good communication skills, energy, creativity, leadership ability, and patience. But what are some of the particular characteristics that distinguish elementary school teachers?

In many ways, those characteristics can be defined by some of the special requirements of the job, such as:

  • A good base of generalist knowledge. Rather than specializing in a particular subject, elementary school teachers often teach a range of subjects to a given class or age group.
  • A fundamental understanding of child psychology. Elementary school children are just learning to learn, and teachers need to be able to perceive how different children are motivated, and what factors may be inhibiting some of them.
  • A basic knowledge of child development. Many learning disabilities are not spotted until a child is in elementary school, and the earlier a teacher can help identify special needs, the more can be done for the child.
  • Sensitivity to non-verbal cues. Small children have often not yet learned how to express themselves clearly, so a sensitivity to non-verbal signals can be the key to communication.
  • A tactful nature for dealing with parents. Parents are an especially important part of the learning experience at the elementary school level, and being able to communicate in a clear yet non-threatening way is a useful attribute.

In addition to the above broad range of skills, there are specific educational credentials needed to become an elementary school teacher.

Elementary School Teacher Education

Although requirements for elementary school teacher education vary from state to state, here are three common elements of most programs:

  • A bachelor’s degree. This would include both a broad background in general studies and specific education in teaching-related subjects such as classroom techniques and child psychology.
  • Student-teaching experience. Education degree programs commonly include a requirement for a student-teaching internship.
  • State certification. Public schools in all 50 states require teachers to be licensed, with the license often specific to the age group being taught. Private schools are less likely to require licensure.

Employment Outlook

Employment growth for teachers is expected to be about typical for the economy as a whole, but it is projected to be especially strong at the elementary school level. This occupation is less cyclical than most, so overall the job market is both promising and stable. Median income levels are above the national average.

Teaching is not an occupation for someone looking to get rich. However, for the personally enriching experience of helping children get a good start along the educational path, it can be an ideal choice.

Improve Your Academic and Professional Learning with Best Business School in India

If you are in the look for the best business schools in India, this article gives an in-depth information about them, their types, courses being offered and a lot more.
A business school is an university-level institution, that provides degrees in business management and administration. Such a school is also otherwise known as school of business, school of management, school of business administration, or colloquially, biz school or B-school. A business school imparts education and teaching related to subjects like administration, accounting, strategy, entrepreneurship, economics, finance, information systems, human resource management, logistics, marketing, organizational behavior, organizational psychology, public relations, research methods, and real-estate, among others.
Business schools in India
Today there is an unprecedented growth and increased demand for management professionals in India. Students or professionals from all walks of life are now very much inclined to pursue their career in professional degree courses. Thanks to the opening of a number of business schools in India, students and professionals who want to develop their academic and professional skills, can enroll themselves in these B-schools and earn the required degree or professional course. Whether one wants to pursue his/her career in marketing, business, management or any other, these professional schools in India offer a range of PGDM and degree programs that pave way for success.
Find the best business schools in India
However, finding a good institute among such a huge number of biz schools in India is a herculean task. While making investment in his/her career, one needs to concentrate the preference ought to be given to the schools or colleges, that have high ranking among the top management schools in the country. The objective of a good institute should be to groom their students for excellence. Some of the best schools in India today, have carved niche among students and professionals looking for quality and hassle-free education. These schools believe that carving a great future, ought to be straight forward and simple. These institutes offer a program that not only empowers students, but also equips them with the wherewithal that will dare them to differ from the others, enlarge their boundaries and help them overcome challenges in the corporate career.

These schools impart the best and quality education to their students, and one needs to understand, that students and professionals in the corporate world should not only be academically good, but also have leadership qualities. These institutes remain focused on creating leadership and professionalism in students. They follow the concept of experiential learning, which is founded on the practical conceptualization of theoretical knowledge. As a result, acquiring education has become interesting, easy and hassle-free for students. There is an excellent and experienced faculty available in these institutes. The teaching staff is highly qualified and has expertise in the subject he/she teaches. Learning through these experienced and expert staffs available in such business schools has made education uncomplicated for students.
Apart from highly skilled faculty and good quality education, these best business schools in India also lay emphasis on bringing the best of the companies for campus recruitment. The placement cell available in these institutes becomes more active when there is final job placement. As a result, with this, careers of students get a kick start since campus recruitment provides a lot of opportunities to choose from. Students having obtained a good job placement from their own college get faster growth for their career.
However, before enrolling through the business schools in India, it is important to read about the feedback posted by their previous and existing students. With this, you will be able to find one of the best business schools in India for your academic and professional career ahead.
If you are looking for PGDM colleges in India, the author of this article recommends RSB.edu.

Benefits of Studying In Kolkata Business Schools

According to a recent study conducted by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS), only 10% of the fresh graduates in India are employable, while about 25% of the MBA graduates are more industry-ready and have better employment prospects. TISS also revealed that if the country has to maintain its competitive advantage in the global arena, management institutes have to provide education that will impart job-relevant skills to the candidates.

As global economic conditions have started improving, it has been observed that business management studies have emerged to be amongst the favorite post grad courses for budding youngsters. Now, as we start discussing about the usefulness of earning a management degree – it won’t take long before you get to understand that Kolkata Business Schools have managed to consolidate their positions as some of the best MBA institutes in India. We must not forget that a graduate from IIM (Kolkata) bagged the highest placement offer of $350,000 (about Rs. 1.65 crore) in the 2010 placement season.

The popularity of Kolkata Business Schools can be easily figured when you see a large number of non- domestic students seeking admissions in these institutions.

Some common benefits of studying in Kolkata Business Schools:

  • Every management college in Kolkata tries to ensure that students receive an international quality learning experience.
  • These institutes have started using a varied multitude of teaching materials and case studies, thus enabling the students to understand the true essence of management education in a better way. Moreover, MBA institutes in Kolkata are offering a synthesis of International and Indian perspectives that reflects the realities of today’s multinational business milieu.
  • The unique pedagogy followed by Kolkata Business Schools facilitates the making of all-round managers with a strong mooring in the Indian Management ethos.
  • Last but not the least – the faculty at these colleges comprises some top-notch academicians, business leaders, and policy makers. These faculty members always see to it that students enjoy the learning process.

Talking about management courses in Kolkata, you get to notice that iLEAD (Institute of Leadership Entrepreneurship & Development) has become a household name in the world of management education. iLEAD has maintained its position as a premiere MBA college among other Kolkata Business Schools!